中国钓鱼岛岂容他人肆意“买卖”(全文)
Diaoyu Islands cannot be bought

 
Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2012-09-14
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周四,在位于北京的日本驻华大使馆外,一名示威抗议者展示的标语上写着“钓鱼岛是中国的,小日本滚出中国”。【图片:中国日报/路透社】
A protester, taking part in a demonstration outside the Japanese embassy in Beijing on Thursday, displays a sign stating that "The Diaoyu Islands belong to China, Japan get out of China". [China Daily via Reuters]

今年9月10日,日本政府宣布“购买”钓鱼岛及其附属的南小岛和北小岛,实施所谓“国有化”。日本政府的这一行径是对中国领土主权的严重侵犯,中国政府和人民对此表示坚决反对和强烈抗议。 On September 10, 2012, the Japanese government announced its decision to "purchase" Diaoyu Island and its affiliated Nanxiao Island and Beixiao Island under what Tokyo called "nationalization". This move taken by the Japanese government constitutes a serious violation of Chinese territorial sovereignty. The Chinese government and people firmly oppose it and have strongly protested against the move.
一、钓鱼岛自古是中国的固有领土 1. Diaoyu Islands have been China's inherent territory since ancient times.
(一)中国最早发现、命名并利用钓鱼岛 1) Diaoyu Islands were first discovered, named and exploited by the Chinese people.
钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿(简称钓鱼岛)包括钓鱼岛、黄尾屿、赤尾屿、南小岛、北小岛等岛屿,自古以来就是中国的固有领土。早在1403年(明永乐元年)出版的《顺风相送》中就明确记载了“福建往琉球”航路上中国的岛屿“钓鱼屿”和“赤坎屿”,即今天的钓鱼岛、赤尾屿。 Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands, including Huangwei Islet, Chiwei Islet, Nanxiao Island and Beixiao Island (hereafter referred to as the Diaoyu Islands) have been an integral part of Chinese territory since ancient times. The book Voyage with a Tail Wind (Shun Feng Xiang Song), which appeared in 1403 (the first year of the reign of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty), recorded the names of islands that Chinese voyagers passed en route from Fujian to Ryukyu such as "Diaoyu Islet" and "Chikan Islet", known today as Diaoyu Island and Chiwei Islet.
中国明清两代朝廷先后24次向琉球王国派遣册封使,留下大量《使琉球录》,较为详尽地记载了钓鱼岛地形地貌,并界定了赤尾屿以东是中国与琉球的分界线。1534年(明嘉靖十三年)明朝册封使陈侃所著《使琉球录》是现存最早记载中国与琉球海上疆界的中国官方文献,明确记载了“过钓鱼屿,过黄毛屿,过赤屿,目不暇接,……见古米山,乃属琉球者。夷人鼓舞于舟,喜达于家。”意即琉球人乘船过了赤屿(即今赤尾屿),看到古米山(即今久米岛)后便认为到达琉球。这表明,钓鱼岛是中国的领土,而非琉球国土。 The imperial courts of the Ming and Qing dynasties sent imperial title-conferring envoys to the Ryukyu Kingdom 24 times. Records of the Imperial Title-Conferring Envoys to Ryukyu (Shi Liu Qiu Lu), and voluminous materials left by the envoys, have depicted the topography and geography of the Diaoyu Islands in detail and recorded the demarcation line between China and Ryukyu east of Chiwei Islet. In 1534 (the 13th year of the reign of Emperor Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty), Chen Kan, an imperial title-conferring envoy from the Ming court to Ryukyu, set out in Records of the Imperial Title-Conferring Envoys to Ryukyu, China's earliest official record of the maritime boundary between China and Ryukyu: "Diaoyu Islet, Huangmao Islet, Chi Islet, so many islands unfold before my eyes. Then Kume Mountain comes into sight; that is where the land of Ryukyu begins. The Ryukyuans on my ship are happy and excited, because they know they have finally returned to their homes." The passage indicates that Ryukyuans believed they had arrived at Ryukyu when they saw Kume Mountain (known as Kumejima Island today) after passing Chiyu Islet (known as Chiwei Yu today). This indicates that the Diaoyu islands belong to China, not Ryukyu.
1719年(清康熙五十八年)清朝册封副使徐葆光所著《中山传信录》明确记载:八重山是“琉球极西南属界”。从福建到琉球,“经花瓶屿、彭家山、钓鱼台、黄尾屿、赤尾屿,取姑米山(琉球西南方界上镇山)、马齿岛,入琉球那霸港。”这里所谓“界上镇山”,即琉球西南海上边界的主岛。当时琉球的权威学者程顺则在《指南广义》中对此也有相同论述,时间上还早于《中山传信录》。由此可见,当时中国和琉球对两国海上疆界和相关岛屿归属的认识十分清楚,且完全一致。 In 1719 (the 58th year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty), Xu Baoguang, a deputy title-conferring envoy to Ryukyu, recorded in his book Records of Messages from Chong-shan (Zhong Shan Chuan Xin Lu, Chong-shan is another name of the Ryukyu Kingdom) that the Yaeyama Islands formed the "southwest border of Ryukyu". The voyage from Fujian to Ryukyu, "passed Huaping Islet, Pengjia Mountain, Diaoyu Tai, Huangwei Islet, Chiwei Islet, and reached Naha port via Kume Mountain (a fortified post on the southwest border of Ryukyu) and Machi Island". The "fortified post" here referred to the main island among the islands and islets southwest to Ryukyu. Cheng Shunze (Tei Junsoku), a noted scholar of Ryukyu, gave a similar account in A General Guide (Zhi Nan Guang Yi), which was published earlier than Records of Messages from Chong-shan. These records prove that China and Ryukyu clearly had an identical understanding of the maritime boundaries and jurisdictions over the various islands.
(二)中国对钓鱼岛进行了长期管辖 2) Diaoyu Islands were under the jurisdiction of China for centuries.
早在14世纪即明朝初年,中国海防将领张赫、吴祯便先后率兵在东南沿海巡海,驱赶倭寇,一直追击到“琉球大洋”,即琉球海沟。此时,钓鱼岛已成为中国抵御倭寇的海上前沿,被纳入中国的海防范围之内。 As early as the 14th century, in the early years of the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese coastal defense generals Zhang He and Wu Zhen patrolled China's southeast coast and drove Japanese pirates to the "Ryukyu Ocean", the Ryukyu Trench. At the time the Diaoyu Islands had become a coastal front line in the battle against Japanese pirates and were under the jurisdiction of China's coastal defense.
1561年(明嘉靖四十年),明朝驻防东南沿海的最高将领胡宗宪与地理学家郑若曾编纂的《筹海图编》一书明确将钓鱼岛等岛屿编入“沿海山沙图”,纳入明朝的海防范围内。1605年(明万历三十三年)徐必达等人绘制的《乾坤一统海防全图》及1621年(明天启元年)茅元仪绘制的中国海防图《武备志·海防二·福建沿海山沙图》,也将钓鱼岛等岛屿划入中国海疆之内。清朝沿袭了明朝的做法,继续将钓鱼岛等岛屿列入中国海防范围内。 In 1561 (the 40th year of the reign of Emperor Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty), An Illustrated Compendium on Maritime Security (Chou Hai Tu Bian) compiled by Hu Zongxian, Supreme Commander of the southeast coastal defense of the Ming court, and the geographer Zheng Ruozeng, included Diaoyu Islands on a "Map of Coastal Mountains and Sands" (Yan Hai Shan Sha Tu) and marked it as under the jurisdiction of the Ming court's coastal defense. The Complete Map of Unified Maritime Territory for Coastal Defense (Qian Kun Yi Tong Hai Fang Quan Tu), drawn up by Xu Bida and others in 1605 (the 33rd year of the reign of Emperor Wanli of the Ming Dynasty), and the Treatise on Military Preparations Coastal Defense II Map of Fujian's Coastal Mountains and Sands ( Wu Bei Zhi Hai Fang Er Fu Jian Yan Hai Shan Sha Tu), drawn up by Mao Yuanyi in 1621 (the first year of the reign of Emperor Tianqi of the Ming Dynasty), also included Diaoyu Islands as part of China's maritime territory. The Qing court followed the Ming court in placing Diaoyu Islands under the Chinese jurisdiction for coastal defense.
1556年(明嘉靖三十五年),郑舜功受明朝政府派遣赴日本考察撰写了《日本一鉴》。书中绘制的“沧海津镜”图中有钓鱼屿,并写道“钓鱼屿小东小屿也。”所谓“小东”,即当时台湾别称,说明当时中国已从地理角度认定钓鱼岛是台湾的附属岛屿。清代《台海使槎录》、《台湾府志》等官方文献还详细记载了对钓鱼岛的管辖情况。1871年编写的《重纂福建通志》进而确定钓鱼岛隶属于台湾噶玛兰厅(即今宜兰县)。 In 1556 (the 35th year of the reign of Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty), Zheng Shungong was dispatched by the Ming court to Japan on a study trip and he wrote A Mirror of Japan (Ri Ben Yi Jian) following the study trip. An illustration in the book - A Mirror of the Seas and Fords (Cang Hai Jin Jing), depicted Diaoyu Islands with a caption saying "Diaoyu Islet is a little islet adjacent to Xiaodong". Xiaodong was another name for Taiwan. This shows that China, at the time, affirmed that Diaoyu Islands were geographically affiliated and connected to Taiwan. Official documents of the Qing Court such as A Tour of Duty in the Taiwan Sea (Tai Hai Shi Zha Lu) and Annals of Taiwan Prefecture (Tai Wan Fu Zhi) have given detailed accounts of the administration on Diaoyu Islands. The Recompiled General Annals of Fujian (Chong Zuan Fu Jian Tong Zhi), issued in 1871, established in no uncertainty that Diaoyu Islands were affiliated to Gamalan, Taiwan (known as Yilan County today).


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