2014年美国的人权纪录(全文)
Full text of Human Rights Record of the United States in 2014

 
Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2015-06-26
调整字号大小:
国务院新闻办公室6月26日发表《2014年美国的人权纪录》,回应美国政府发布的“国别人权报告”。全文如下: The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a report titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2014" on Friday. Following is the report's full text:
2014年美国的人权纪录
中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
2015年6月
Human Rights Record of the United States in 2014
State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China
目 录 Contents
导 言 Foreword
一、关于公民权利 I. On Civil Rights
二、关于政治权利 II. On Political Rights
三、关于经济和社会权利 III. On Economic and Social Rights
四、关于种族歧视 IV. On Racial Discrimination
五、关于妇女和儿童权利 V. On Women and Children's Rights
六、关于侵犯他国人权 VI. On Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries
导 言 Foreword
美国国务院于当地时间6月25日再次发布“国别人权报告”,对世界许多国家人权状况评头论足,而偏偏对自己糟糕的人权纪录,毫无反省改进之意。大量事实证明,2014年,以“人权卫士”自居的美国,旧有人权问题未见改善,新的人权问题不断出现,自身人权状况更加堪忧,侵犯他国人权更加肆无忌惮,在国际人权场合被亮更多“红牌”。 On June 25 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices once again, making comments on the human rights situations in many countries while showing not a bit of regret for or intention to improve its own terrible human rights record. Plenty of facts show that, in 2014, the U.S., a self-proclaimed human rights defender, saw no improvements in its existent human rights issues, but reported numerous new problems. While its own human rights situation was increasingly grave, the U.S. violated human rights in other countries in a more brazen manner, and was given more "red cards" in the international human rights field.
美国枪支泛滥,暴力犯罪猖獗,公民权利受到严重威胁。发生在美国的谋杀案件中有69.0%使用枪支,抢劫案件中有40.0%使用枪支,严重暴力袭击案中有21.6%使用枪支。(1) 警察过度使用暴力造成多人死亡,引发民众强烈抗议。密苏里州弗格森镇手无寸铁的18岁非洲裔青年迈克尔·布朗遭白人警察达伦·威尔逊六枪射杀。密苏里州大陪审团和纽约州大陪审团相继作出白人警察无罪的判决后,引发全美超过170余座城市大规模的示威抗议运动。(2) The U.S. was haunted by spreading guns, frequent occurrence of violent crimes, which threatened citizens' civil rights. Statistics showed that the use of firearms in the U.S. was behind 69 percent of murders, while for robberies, the figure was 40 percent, and for aggravated assaults, 21.6 percent (edition.cnn.com). The excessive use of force by police officers led to many deaths, sparking public outcry. An unarmed 18-year-old African-American Michael Brown was shot dead by a white police officer named Darren Wilson in Ferguson, a town in Missouri. After the grand jury of both Missouri and New York decided to bring no charges against the white police officer, massive protests broke out in more than 170 cities nationwide (cn.nytimes.com, November 25, 2014).
美国滥用酷刑,中央情报局使用的酷刑手段令人触目惊心。中情局为获取情报对所抓获的恐怖和极端组织嫌疑人实施酷刑,使用禁止睡觉、水刑、长期单独幽禁、将囚犯头部猛力撞墙和抽打乃至死亡威胁等审讯手段,甚至还有“直肠补液”等骇人手段。联合国人权事务委员会和禁止酷刑委员会等联合国人权条约机构,对美国包括死囚拘留条件恶劣、滥用酷刑、秘密关押、无限期任意拘留以及非法监听侵犯公民隐私权等在内的诸多问题给予关切,并特别呼吁美国“对警察所有野蛮行为和滥用武力情况进行迅速、有效和公平的调查” (3)。 The U.S. used cruel tortures indiscriminately, notably those carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). To acquire intelligence from suspects of terrorism and extremism, the CIA used brutal methods, such as sleep deprivation, waterboarding, long-term solitary confinement, slamming prisoners against the wall, lashing, death threat and even "rectal rehydration" or rectal feeding. United Nations human rights convention institutions such as the UN Human Rights Committee and the Committee Against Torture had raised their concerns over issues in the U.S., including terrible detention conditions for convicts awaiting execution, abuse of brutal methods, secret detention, indefinite arbitrary detention, and illegal wire-tapping which infringed citizens' privacy. These institutions called on the U.S. to conduct swift, effective and fair investigations into all brutal behaviors and abuse of forces of the police force (www.un.org).
美国种族歧视极其严重,少数族裔继续遭受系统性歧视。警察执法和司法中存在严重的种族偏向。少数群体和土著人在环境、选举、医疗、住房、教育等方面遭受不公正待遇。2014年8月,联合国消除种族歧视委员会审议美国履约报告时,对美国侵犯种族、土著、移民等少数群体权利,特别是少数族裔群体的成员更易受到逮捕、监禁并被判处严厉的刑罚等问题提出集中批评。(4) The U.S. is a country with grim problems of racial discrimination, and institutional discrimination against ethnic minorities continued. Serious racial bias persisted in the police and justice systems. Minority groups and indigenous people are subject to unfairness in environment, election, health care, housing, education and other fields. In August 2014, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in its concluding observation on the periodic report of the U.S. on the latter's implementation of relevant convention, slammed the U.S. for violating the rights of ethnic minorities, indigenous people, immigrants and other minority groups. It criticized the fact that members of racial and ethnic minorities continued to be disproportionately arrested, incarcerated and subjected to harsher sentences (tbinternet.ohchr.org).
金钱主导美国政治,公民政治权利难以保障。中期选举花费创历史新高,公民投票率创第二次世界大战以来新低。“暗钱”涌入选举,少数族裔等群体的投票权受到刻意压制,少数有权势的利益集团控制政府决策。有学者一针见血指出,美国的民主体制正在面临严重的代表性危机。“普通公民感到民主成为了一个幌子,政府被各路精英们暗中操纵,不再真实地反映大众的利益诉求。”(5) Money is a deciding factor in the U.S. politics, and the U.S. citizens' political rights were not properly protected. Despite the highest midterm election spending in history, general election voter turnout for the 2014 midterms was the lowest since World War II. "Dark money" flowed into elections, and the voting rights of racial minorities and other groups were intentionally suppressed. A few interest groups with power were able to influence the government's decision-making. As a renowned scholar pointed out sharply, the U.S. democratic system was experiencing a crisis of representation. "Ordinary citizens feel that their supposedly democratic government no longer truly reflects their interests and is under the control of a variety of shadowy elites (Foreign Affairs, September/October 2014)."
美国是世界上经济最发达的国家,但公民的经济和社会权利却难以得到充分保障。在经济复苏过程中收入不平等继续扩大,无家可归者基本生存状况恶化,医疗服务系统运转糟糕,普通民众的受教育权受到侵害。2014年10月,联合国特别报告员批评美国底特律市规模空前的断水现象不成比例地影响最弱势、最贫困人群,构成对享有饮用水和其他国际人权的侵犯。 Although the U.S. is the most developed country in the world, it is hard for the economic and social rights of its citizens to be soundly ensured. In the process of economic recovery, the income inequality continued to be enlarged, the basic living conditions for the homeless people deteriorated, the health care system operated terribly and the education rights of average citizens were violated. In October 2014, the United Nations Special Rapporteurs criticized the unprecedented water shut-offs in Detroit disproportionately affected the most vulnerable and poorest people, violating their right of access to drinking water and other international human rights.
美国妇女儿童的权利得不到充分保障。妇女在工作场合遭受歧视,家庭暴力情况经常发生。平均每年有约210万名女性遭到男性攻击,每天有3名女性被其伴侣杀害,有4名女性死于遭受虐待。女性在军队中遭受性侵的报告数量上升,告发后遭到报复的比例升高。美国有数百万儿童无家可归,每天有3名儿童死于遭受虐待,校园暴力和性侵广泛存在,枪击案频发。 American women and children's rights were not fully protected. Women were discriminated at workplaces, and domestic violence was prevalent. Each year, 2.1 million American women on average were assaulted by men. Three females were murdered by their partner each day, and four females died each day as a result of abuse. In the U.S. military, reports of female soldiers getting harassed were on the rise, and more faced repercussions for reporting assaults. Millions of American children were homeless. Three children died each day as a result of abuse. School violence and sex assaults were pervasive and gun shootings happened from time to time.
美国国家安全局等情报机构长期大规模监听他国领导人及普通民众。美国仍不批准《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》、《儿童权利公约》等核心人权公约。对于联合国人权理事会、人权事务高级专员办公室、专门工作组、特别报告员等对美国的人权状况提出的批评,美国政府经常采取拖延或不合作态度。 National Security Agency and other intelligence-gathering apparatus of the U.S. for a long time have spied on world leaders and civilians. The U.S. has not ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The U.S. government often takes an evasive or uncooperative attitude toward the criticism of the United Nations Human Rights Council, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights of UN, the council's working groups and special rapporteurs.

注(1) 美国有线电视新闻网网站(edition.cnn.com),2014年9月24日。

注(2) 《纽约时报》网站(cn.nytimes.com),2014年11月25日。

注(3) 联合国网站(www.un.org)。

注(4) 联合国人权条约机构网站(tbinternet.ohchr.org)。

注(5) 《外交事务》,2014年(9月/10月)。



1   2   3   4   5   Next  


分享到:

Go to Forum >>0 Comment(s)

No comments.

Add your comments...

  • User Name Required
  • Your Comment
  • Enter the words you see:   
    Racist, abusive and off-topic comments may be removed by the moderator.
Send your storiesGet more from China.org.cnMobileMobileRSSRSSNewsletterNewsletter