李克强在经济合作与发展组织总部的演讲(全文)
Full text: Li Keqiang's speech at the OECD headquarters

 
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当地时间7月1日上午,国务院总理李克强应邀在位于巴黎的经济合作与发展组织总部发表主旨演讲。[新华社 丁林 摄]
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang delivers a speech at the headquarters of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris, France, July 1, 2015. [Ding Lin/Xinhua]
国务院总理李克强当地时间7月1日上午应邀在经济合作与发展组织总部发表题为《聚焦发展共创繁荣》的主旨演讲。全文如下: Chinese Premier Li Keqiang delivered a speech titled "Keep Development in Focus and Create Prosperity for All" at the headquarters of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris, France, July 1, 2015. Following is the full text of the speech:

聚焦发展 共创繁荣
——在经济合作与发展组织总部的演讲
中华人民共和国国务院总理 
李克强
(2015年7月1日,巴黎)

Keep Development in Focus and Create Prosperity for All
Speech by H.E. Li Keqiang Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
At the OECD Headquarters
Paris, 1 July 2015

尊敬的古里亚秘书长,
女士们,先生们:
Secretary-General Angel Gurria,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
刚才,古里亚秘书长发表了热情洋溢的致辞,回顾了中国同经济合作与发展组织建立政策对话合作关系20周年的历程。对于拥有13亿人口的中国这个最大发展中国家来说,我们改革开放30多年来始终把发展作为第一要务。从全球看,无论是实现富裕还是推进文明,都需要解决贫困、疾病等各种问题,归根到底要靠发展。在当今世界经济深度融合的背景下,解决这些问题需要国际合作。 In his warm and inspiring remarks just now, Secretary-General Gurria looked back at a journey of 20 years since China and the OECD started the policy dialogue. For China, the world's biggest developing country with 1.3 billion people, development has always been of top priority throughout the 30-odd years of reform and opening-up. At the global level, problems like poverty and diseases have to be addressed while we are promoting prosperity and progress in civilization. And that, in the final analysis, has to be done through development. In a world of deeply integrated economies, solutions to these problems lie in international cooperation.
长期以来,中国立足自身国情,借鉴国际经验,在发展问题上进行了艰辛探索。中国依靠改革开放,经济社会发展取得了举世瞩目的伟大成就。这个时候,我们听到国际上一些朋友问,中国已经发展得很好了,发展中国家的“帽子”是不是该摘掉了?应该看到,中国作为世界上最大的发展中国家,虽然经济总量已位居世界第二,但人均GDP只有7589美元,相当于全球平均水平的65%、美国的1/7、欧盟的1/5,排在全球第80位。中国的综合发展水平特别是创新能力、劳动生产率、社会福利水平等与发达国家相比仍有不小差距,有的指标甚至比一些发展中国家还要低。以大家熟知的联合国人类发展指数为例,中国排在第91位。中国城乡、区域发展不平衡。北京、上海等大城市现代化程度不算低,但如果到中西部特别是偏远农村去看看,那里的居住、交通、教育、医疗等条件还很差,有的地方甚至连吃水都困难。从减贫任务看,改革开放以来,中国减少了6亿贫困人口,确实取得了令人瞩目的成绩,也最早实现了贫困人口减半的联合国千年发展目标。但是,我们面临的减贫任务依然不轻松。现在,中国城乡低保人口有7400万,残疾人有8500万,按我们自己的标准还有7000多万农村贫困人口。若按照世界银行标准,中国还有约2亿贫困人口,相当于法国、德国、英国人口的总和。今年3月,经合组织发表了《一个都不能少:推动中国实现包容性增长》的报告。你们列举的一些数据、作出的一些结论是有说服力的,与中国学者的判断大体一致。在十几亿人口的国家要实现现代化,人类历史上没有先例,必须做出长期艰苦的努力。我们清楚认识到所面临的挑战,下最大决心努力实现到本世纪中叶达到中等发达国家水平的目标。 Over the years, in light of its own national conditions and drawing on the successes of other countries, China has made tremendous efforts to explore a way to development. Thanks to reform and opening-up, China has scored remarkable achievements in economic and social development. Today, some foreign friends may ask, "China has come such a long way. Isn't it time to stop calling China a developing country?" As a matter of fact, China remains the biggest developing country. True, China has become the world's second largest economy. But its per capita GDP is a mere 7,589 US dollars, ranking 80th in the world. To give it some context, China's per capita GDP is 65% of the global average, 1/7 that of the United States and 1/5 that of the European Union. When it comes to overall development level, especially in terms of innovation capacity, productivity and social welfare, China lags far behind developed countries. And in some areas, China even has lower rankings than some fellow developing countries. Take the United Nations' human development index (HDI) for example, China ranks 91st. Besides, development is uneven between China's urban and rural areas and between its various regions. There are modern metropolises like Beijing and Shanghai. But when you go to the central and western part of the country, especially those far-flung villages, you will probably see poor conditions for living, transportation, education and medical service. People in some areas even have difficulty accessing drinking water. Since the start of reform and opening-up, China has reduced its poverty population by 600 million. This is indeed an impressive feat, making China the first to attain the MDG of halving extreme poverty. That said, China still has a challenge to meet in poverty alleviation. In China, 74 million people still rely on basic living allowances and 85 million are living with disabilities. By China's own standard, over 70 million people in rural areas are living in poverty, and by World Bank standard, China still has a poor population of 200 million, which is equivalent to the population of France, Germany and the United Kingdom combined. In March, the OECD issued a report All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen in China. It includes some convincing figures and conclusions, which are generally in line with the estimates of Chinese scholars. To achieve modernization in a country with more than a billion people, there is no ready example to follow and no option other than to work long and hard. We are keenly aware of the challenges we face. But this does not make us any less determined to turn China into a medium developed country by the middle of the century.
女士们,先生们! Ladies and Gentlemen,
国际金融危机爆发7年来,全球经济复苏进程一波三折,前景仍不明朗。最近,包括经合组织在内的一些国际机构下调了世界经济增长预测。如何稳定经济,增加就业,促进可持续发展,是我们面临的共同挑战。我想就此谈几点看法。 It has been seven years since the global financial crisis broke out. The economic recovery process, which has been through many twists and turns, still shows uncertainties. Recently, the OECD and some other international institutions have revised down their growth outlook for the world economy. How to stabilize the economy, create new jobs and ensure sustainable development remains the challenge for all countries. In this connection, I want to share with you the following thoughts.
第一,维护和平发展环境。世界和平是发展最重要的保障,没有和平什么事都办不成。今年是联合国成立70周年,也是世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年。正是有了这70年总体和平的国际环境,世界才实现了前所未有的发展和繁荣。我们要倍加珍惜来之不易的胜利果实,坚决捍卫《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,坚定维护以联合国为核心的战后国际秩序和体系。在经济全球化深入发展的今天,世界各国的利益交融不断加深,休戚相关。但这个世界并不太平,热点问题和局部冲突此起彼伏。我们主张,有关各方应当以和平合作的方式,通过对话与谈判寻求解决之道。国际社会应当尊重当事国和地区人民的意愿,营造团结和解的氛围。中华文化自古就主张以和为贵、以德服人,反对以势压人、强加于人。无论过去、现在还是将来,中国都是世界和平和国际秩序的坚定维护者和促进者。中国将坚定维护领土主权等核心利益,也倡导建立地区合作机制,使我们能够生活在一个和平的世界、稳定的地区环境之中。 First, it is important to uphold the environment for peaceful development. Peace is the number one guarantee for development, without which nothing could be accomplished. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations and the victory of the world's anti-Fascist war. Overall peace in the past 70 years has brought unprecedented development and prosperity. The outcome of the hard-won victory needs to be cherished. The purposes and principles of the UN Charter should be safeguarded, and the UN-centered post-war international order should be resolutely upheld. Deep economic globalization has bound the interests and destinies of countries closely together. But the world is by no means peaceful, and hotspot issues and local conflicts have kept cropping up. China believes that relevant parties need to find a peaceful solution through cooperation, dialogue and negotiation. The international community should respect the will of relevant countries and peoples and endeavor to foster an atmosphere for unity and reconciliation. The Chinese culture has all along valued peace and virtue and rejected the practice of bullying others or imposing one's own will on others. China was, is and will continue to be a strong advocate and facilitator of world peace and international order. China will be resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and core interests. China calls for the establishment of a regional cooperation mechanism to ensure that we continue to enjoy an environment of world peace and regional stability.
第二,加快结构性改革。从历史上看,危机之时往往是改革之机。近年来,世界各国都在从国际金融危机中汲取教训,大刀阔斧推进结构性改革。这是应对世界经济下行挑战的必由之路。与此同时,互联网、大数据、3D打印等新技术快速普及,也为全球经济复苏增添了亮色。 Second, it is important to step up structural reform. History shows that crises, more often than not, are accompanied with opportunities for change. Countries concerned have learned useful lessons from the international financial crisis. They have realized that vigorous structural reform is the surest way to getting out of the global economic downturn. On top of that, rapid spread of new technologies, like the Internet, big data and 3D printing, also adds new impetus to world economic recovery.
在我看来,结构性改革最重要的是要激发民众的积极性和创造力,使经济增长保持生机和活力。每个人都是有想象力和创造力的。中国有句谚语,“人心齐,泰山移”。西方人常说,“两个脑袋比一个脑袋好使”。世界有70多亿人口,如果每个人的才能都能充分发挥出来,就能创造出任何人间的奇迹。我们要顺势而为,通过结构性改革,消除束缚人的创造力的体制机制障碍。这不仅有利于激发市场活力和社会创造力,也有利于公平分配,促进包容性增长。 In my view, structural reform, first and foremost, is about stimulating people's initiative and creativity and sustaining economic growth. Indeed, everyone has a gift for imagination and creation. The Chinese say that when people are of the same mind, they could move Mount Tai. And Westerners say that two heads work better than one. Just imagine if the talent of all seven billion people on earth could be leveraged. The result would simply be miracle. It is imperative that we follow the trend of the times and have structural reforms to remove institutional and structural barriers to people's ingenuity. This could accomplish more than invigorating the market. It will also facilitate fairer distribution and inclusive growth.
中国政府近年来大力倡导大众创业、万众创新,就是要把13亿人口特别是9亿劳动力的智慧发挥出来,把7000多万市场主体尤其是1900多万家企业的潜力充分挖掘出来,集众智才能成大事。在这里,我与大家分享一些亲历的故事。今年5月,我去北京中关村看过3W创业咖啡馆,许多怀揣梦想的年轻人在那里把“好点子”变成“好生意”,圆了创业梦。大企业也可以这么做。海尔集团将传统的层级管控组织重塑为新型创业创新平台,让员工成为创客,在这个平台上孕育产生各种“奇思妙想”,海尔既可以自己用,也可以对外合作开发,使公司变成一个大的创新资源聚集之地。平台孵化了2000多家小微公司,推出了1000多个创新产品及创业项目,吸引了1300多家风险投资基金,创造了100多万个就业机会。又如,中核集团“华龙一号”核电技术是依托互联网协同研发的,他们连接的科研机构有20多个,终端达500多台。由此可见,人类创业创新有着巨大的潜力和空间。 In recent years, the Chinese government has strongly encouraged mass entrepreneurship and innovation. This is aimed at leveraging the wisdom of the 1.3 billion Chinese people, particularly the 900 million in the workforce, and fully tapping the potential of the over 70 million market players, especially the over 19 million enterprises. We know that big things can only be done by pooling the wisdom of people together, and I myself have seen success stories with my eyes. In May this year, I visited the 3W Cafe in Beijing's Zhongguancun area, where aspiring young men and women have been given the opportunity to turn their good ideas into good business and realize their dream of setting up their own businesses. In fact, big companies in China are doing just the same. The Haier Group, for instance, has shifted their traditional hierarchical management system and set up a new platform for entrepreneurship and innovation. Their employees have become makers who produce all kinds of fancy ideas on the platform. These ideas are later on developed by Haier itself, or in collaboration with other companies. This way, the platform for new ideas has incubated over 2,000 small and micro businesses and nurtured over 1,000 innovative products and startup projects. Over 1,300 venture investment funds have been attracted, and more than one million jobs created. The China National Nuclear Corporation, for another example, has developed the Hualong One nuclear technology through Internet-based R&D in collaboration with over 20 research institutes on 500 terminals. So we have seen what could be done when huge potential is unleashed for entrepreneurship and innovation.
为了推动大众创业、万众创新,中国政府正在大力推进简政放权、放管结合、优化服务。新增市场主体井喷式增长,今年前5个月新注册企业平均每天1万户。这些新设立的企业大多属于小微企业和服务业,就业容量大。中国经济增长速度虽然有所放缓,但就业不减反增,而且青年人的就业稳定增加,靠的就是改革创新。创业创新没有国界。我们愿与各国加强交流合作,开展联合技术攻关,消除技术转移壁垒,不断汇聚经济发展的源头活水。 To encourage mass entrepreneurship and innovation, the Chinese government has taken measures to streamline administration, delegate power, strengthen regulation and improve services. New market players are increasing in exponential terms. Each day in the past five months, some 10,000 new businesses were registered. Most of them are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or service providers. Together, they employ lots of people. As a result, more jobs have been created and employment for the young has grown steadily despite a moderated speed of economic growth. All this is attributable to reform and innovation. Entrepreneurship and innovation know no boundaries. China wants to increase interaction and cooperation with other countries to jointly address technological challenges, remove barriers to technology transfer and open up new sources for economic growth.
第三,开展国际产能合作。国际金融危机发生以后,一些国家采取量化宽松政策,这对于防止经济衰退是必要的。但要使世界经济强劲复苏,必须多措并举支持实体经济发展,很重要的就是推动国际产能合作。当今世界,发展中国家有近60亿人口,其中不少国家还处在工业化初期,需要增长和减贫,需要建设基础设施,装备需求很大,但这些国家资金有限,大都买不起高端装备。而中国已进入工业化中期,经济体量大,200多种工业品产量居世界首位,装备水平处在全球产业链的中端,性价比高。同时,发达国家处于工业化后期或后工业化阶段,正在推行“再工业化”,拥有高端装备技术。中方愿将自身的装备与发展中国家的需求结合起来,降低其采购成本,支持其工业发展。也愿同发达国家通过合资、合作等方式联合起来,购买他们的核心技术、关键零部件和一些节能环保设备,这就不仅能为发展中国家提供价格较低、质量较高的产品,而且还能大大提高节能环保水平。最近,我访问拉美时,考察了出口到那里的中国产渡轮,其动力系统就是从发达国家采购的,不是柴油发动机而是柴油发电机,不会造成污染。 Third, it is important to carry out global cooperation on production capacity. Since the outbreak of the international financial crisis, some countries have taken a QE policy, which was necessary to forestall an economic recession. But to ensure strong growth of the world economy, it is imperative to adopt multiple measures to support the real economy. One way to do that is to carry out global cooperation on production capacity. Now nearly six billion people live in developing countries. Many of them are at the early stage of industrialization. This means a huge need for poverty reduction, infrastructure development and equipment manufacturing, which all serve to spur growth. Yet limited financial resources may have barred many of these countries from getting high-end equipment. China, for its part, has entered the middle stage of industrialization. The sheer size of China makes it the largest producer of more than 200 industrial products in the world. Chinese equipment, being at the middle-end of the global industrial chain, is competitive given their high quality and low prices. And when it comes to developed countries, they are in the advanced stage of industrialization or even a post-industrial period with a focus on re-industrialization. So they have an advantage to offer in terms of high-end equipment and technology. China's strength in equipment manufacturing could well be tapped to meet the need of developing countries for lower procurement costs and industrial upgrading. China may also work with developed countries to set up joint ventures or cooperative operations. China may buy core technologies, key parts and components and energy saving and environmentally friendly equipment from developed countries, therefore offering developing countries inexpensive, quality and energy conserving products that are more environmentally friendly. During my recent visit to Latin America, I got on-board a China-made ferry that is powered by a diesel electric system purchased from a developed country, instead of a conventional diesel engine, making it largely pollution-free.
我们倡导国际产能合作,是开放式的合作,既采用发达国家的先进技术设备,也面向发展中国家就地生产装配,还与国际金融机构进行融资合作,可以向全球市场提供物美价廉的装备、产能以及有保障的金融服务。我这次访问法国,同法方签署了共同开发第三方市场的合作协议,中国的产能与法国及其他发达国家的技术结合起来,共同推动广大发展中国家的基础设施建设、工业化进程和发展减贫。由此,既可以使发展中国家提升工业水平,也可以倒逼中国产业升级,还可以带动发达国家核心技术和创意出口,实现三方共赢。这也是南南合作、南北合作新的重要途径,更是通过发展实体经济应对世界经济下行挑战的有效良方。我们可以把金融合作与实体经济发展结合起来,把资本支持和投资品贸易结合起来,最终有利于发展中国家工业化,也有利于发达国家再工业化。 China calls for open global cooperation on production capacity. The idea involves advanced technology and equipment from developed countries, localized production and assembly in developing countries as well as financing cooperation with international financial institutions. Such a cooperation model will provide the global market with cost effective equipment, production capacity and solid financial services. During my current visit, China and France signed an agreement on jointly exploring third-party markets. China's production capacity will be joined with advanced technology of France and other developed countries to promote infrastructure development, industrialization and poverty reduction in developing countries. This will raise the level of industrialization in developing countries, promote China's industrial upgrading and drive the export of core technologies and creative products from developed countries. The result could be win-win for all three parties. I believe this could be a new and important way for South-South and North-South cooperation. It could boost the real economy and help counter the downward pressure in global economy. In fact, both industrialization in developing countries and re-industrialization in developed countries will be advanced if we could properly combine financing cooperation with development of the real economy, and capital support with trade in investment goods.
今年下半年,联合国将召开发展峰会,气候变化大会和第三次发展筹资大会也将举行。发达国家应履行官方发展援助承诺,增加对发展中国家特别是非洲等地区最不发达国家的支持,进一步减免债务、开放市场。中国愿与各方一道,推动制定一个公平、包容、可持续的2015年后发展议程。我们已经明确了到2030年应对气候变化的自主贡献行动目标和政策方向,愿与各国共同努力,推动巴黎气候大会如期达成新协议。 Later this year, the United Nations will convene a development summit, a climate change conference and the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. We call on developed countries to follow through on their ODA commitment, scale up support to developing countries, especially least developed countries in Africa and elsewhere, and further cut the debts of and open up markets to developing countries. China stands ready to work with all parties to deliver a fair, inclusive and sustainable post-2015 development agenda. On climate change, China has outlined its nationally determined actions and policies before 2030, and will work with other countries towards reaching the much-anticipated new climate deal at the Paris conference.
女士们,先生们! Ladies and Gentlemen,
各位朋友非常关注中国经济走势。我想告诉大家的是,今年以来,中国经济运行总体平稳,稳中向好。一季度GDP增长7%,从5、6月份的情况看,工业、投资、消费、出口等主要经济指标企稳回升,市场信心增强。结构调整步伐加快,服务业比重超过一半,新产品、新业态、新商业模式大量涌现。比如,前5个月网络零售增长38.5%,5月当月新能源汽车、工业机器人产量同比分别增长2.8倍和1.3倍。这些亮点反映出,中国的产业在升级,增长动能在转换。 I know many of you are interested in China's economic prospect. Let me assure you that on the whole, the Chinese economy is steady and moving in the right direction. GDP grew by 7% in the first quarter. Major economic data of May and June such as industrial output, investment, consumption and export have stabilized and rallied, and market confidence has strengthened. Economic structural adjustment has picked up speed - the services sector now accounts for more than half of the economy, and new products, sectors and business models have emerged in great numbers. In the first five months of this year, online retail sales rose by 38.5%. In May, output of new-energy cars and industrial robots increased by 2.8 times and 1.3 times respectively. All these point to the fact that China's industrial development is upgrading and the Chinese economy is being driven by new growth drivers.
当然,中国经济仍面临下行的压力,一些深层次矛盾凸显。但这是“成长中的烦恼”。我们将把握好稳增长与调结构的平衡,继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策,在区间调控的基础上加强定向调控,通过深化改革开放顶住下行压力,做到调速不减势,量增质更优。中国市场广阔,可供选择的调控工具多。我们有条件有信心实现今年经济发展预期目标,努力保持经济中高速增长,迈向中高端水平。 There is no denying however that China still faces downward pressure and some deep-seated problems. But these are "growing pains". We will strike a proper balance between steady growth and structural adjustment, continue to implement the proactive fiscal policy and prudent monetary policy, and strengthen targeted regulation on the basis of range-based regulation so as to cushion the downward pressure through deeper reform and opening-up. Our aim is to keep the economic momentum with moderated rate of growth and to raise both the quantity and quality of the Chinese economy. Given the size of the Chinese market, there is a variety of regulation tools we may resort to. We have both the confidence and the capabilities to meet the target set for this year, and we will strive to sustain medium-high rate of growth and move the Chinese economy toward medium-high level of development.
女士们,先生们! Ladies and Gentlemen,
中国作为一个发展中国家,与经合组织建立政策对话合作关系20年来,开展了多种形式的交流合作,经合组织为中国的发展提出了不少宝贵建议,中国的实践也拓展了经合组织的研究视野。刚才,我与古里亚秘书长就深化中国与经合组织的合作交换了意见。双方签署了合作中期愿景和2015年至2016年工作计划,明确了合作的重点领域和路线图。借此机会,我宣布,中国有关机构正式加入经合组织发展中心。明年,中国将举办二十国集团峰会,我们愿与各方共谋发展之策,也欢迎经合组织提供有力支持。 China as a developing country has engaged the OECD in various forms of exchanges and cooperation since our policy dialogue started 20 years ago. While China has benefited a lot from the OECD's views and recommendations, China's development has offered the OECD a broader perspective in its research endeavor. Before coming here, Secretary-General Gurria and I discussed ways to deepen the OECD's cooperation with China. The two sides also signed a Medium-term Vision Statement and a joint Program of Work for 2015-2016, identifying priority areas and the roadmap for future cooperation. Here I wish to announce the formal accession of a Chinese institution to the OECD Development Center. As China will play host to the G20 summit next year, we look forward to discussing with all parties ways to advance development, and the OECD's strong support is more than welcome in this connection.
中国人历来推崇“知行合一”。让我们携起手来,既做思想者也做行动者,想出更多好主意,拿出更多务实行动,推动共同发展,更好地增进全人类福祉。 The Chinese culture emphasizes the need to match knowledge with action. Let us think and act together to come up with better ideas and more concrete actions to advance the common development and wellbeing of the entire human race.
谢谢大家! Thank you very much.


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