二十国集团深化结构性改革议程
G20 Enhanced Structural Reform Agenda

 
Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2016-09-07
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一、前言 Introduction
结构性改革是二十国集团(G20)的一项重点议题,也是G20实现强劲、可持续、平衡增长目标的关键之一。结构性改革是长期增长的重要动力,特别是在与宏观经济政策一并使用时,能够提振信心、促进需求和增长。G20财长和央行行长承诺“各自以及共同使用所有政策工具,包括货币、财政和结构性改革政策”以“促进增长,增强信心,维护和增进复苏”。 Structural reform has been a priority for the G20 and a key part to achieving the G20’s goal of strong, sustainable and balanced growth. It is an important driver of growth over the long term, and can support confidence, demand and growth in the short term especially when used in conjunction with macroeconomic policies. G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors are committed to using "all policy tools – monetary, fiscal and structural – individually and collectively" to "strengthen growth ... foster confidence and preserve and strengthen the recovery".
考虑到结构性改革的关键作用,确保成员富有雄心地、有针对性且有效地推进改革十分重要。这也是深化结构性改革议程并作为2016年G20一项重点议题的动因。在此背景下,G20财长和央行行长“承诺进一步加强结构性改革议程,包括提出一系列改革的优先领域和指导原则,为G20各成员推进结构性改革提供参考,并将建立一套指标体系,在考虑国情多样性的同时,更好地评估和监测各成员结构性改革进展及其是否足以应对结构性挑战。这一强化的结构性改革议程将纳入强劲、可持续、平衡增长框架下的现有工作。” Given the critical role played by structural reform, it is important to ensure that members’ efforts in this area are ambitious, relevant, focused and effective. This underlies the motivation for the development of an enhanced structural reform agenda, which is a priority for the G20 in 2016. In this context,Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors "committed to further enhancing the structural reform agenda, including by developing a set of priorities and guiding principles as a reference for G20 reform efforts, as well as by creating an indicator system to further improve assessing and monitoring of the progress of structural reforms and their adequacy to address structural challenges, taking into account the diversity of country circumstances. This enhanced structural reform agenda will be incorporated into the existing work stream under the Framework for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth".
本文将详细介绍今年由G20强劲、可持续、平衡增长框架工作组制定的深化结构性改革议程的具体内容。 This paper sets out the details of the G20's enhanced structural reform agenda as developed this year by the G20 Framework Working Group for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth.
二、优先领域 Priorities
G20确定的九大结构性改革优先领域如下: The nine areas identified as structural reform priorities for the G20 are:
1. 促进贸易和投资开放 -- Promoting trade and investment openness
2. 推进劳动力市场改革及获取教育与技能 -- Advancing labour market reform, educational attainment and skills
3. 鼓励创新 -- Encouraging innovation
4. 改善基础设施 -- Improving infrastructure
5. 促进财政改革 -- Promoting fiscal reform
6. 促进竞争并改善商业环境 -- Promoting competition and an enabling environment
7. 改善并强化金融体系 -- Improving and strengthening the financial system
8. 增强环境可持续性 -- Enhancing environmental sustainability
9. 促进包容性增长 -- Promoting inclusive growth
值得注意的是,各国结构性改革的优先领域各不相同,应关注与自身改革联系最紧密的优先领域。正如国际货币基金组织(IMF)在题为《结构性改革框架:优先领域和指导原则》的文件中提到的,要确定结构性改革的优先领域,应首先评估一国结构性政策缺口,以便找出哪些改革最能促进增长。结构性改革的具体选择和设计必须考虑该国的宏观经济环境和优先重点,包括收入水平、所处的经济周期以及政策空间。 It should be noted that the specific priority areas making up the structural reform agenda will differ from country to country, and countries will focus on those priority areas that are of greatest relevance to their reform agendas. As the IMF has noted in its paper entitled "A Framework for Structural Reforms: Priorities and Guiding Principles", the identification of reform priorities begins with an assessment of the country's structural policy gaps as this will indicate where reforms are likely to have the largest impact in terms of boosting growth. The choice and design of specific structural reforms must necessarily be informed by a country's macroeconomic environment and national preferences. This includes taking into account the country's income level, its position in the economic cycle and its policy space for reforms.
三、指导原则 Guiding Principles
九大优先领域下的具体指导原则如下: The guiding principles for each of the nine priority areas are listed as follows:
(一)促进贸易和投资开放的指导原则 Promoting trade and investment openness
1. 减少关税和非关税贸易壁垒 -- Reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade
2. 减少对外国直接投资的壁垒和限制 -- Reduce barriers and restrictions to foreign direct investment
3. 实施贸易便利化措施以降低边境成本 -- Implement trade facilitation measures to reduce border costs
4. 适当减少贸易和投资的边境后限制,促进更广泛的跨境协调 -- Reduce, as appropriate, behind-the-border restrictions on trade and investment and seek greater cross-border harmonisation
5. 通过多边、诸边和双边协议最小化对第三方的歧视性措施,减少贸易和投资壁垒 -- Reduce barriers to trade and investment through multilateral as well as plurilateral and bilateral agreements while minimising the discriminatory measures against third parties
(二)推进劳动力市场改革及获取教育与技能的指导原则 Advancing labour market reforms, educational attainment and skills
1. 减少对低参与率群体的劳动参与障碍,如女性、青年和老年工人 -- Reduce barriers to the labour force for groups with low participation rates such as women, youth and older workers
2. 扩大并改善积极劳动力市场政策的有效性 -- Expand and improve the effectiveness of active labour market policies
3. 从保护工作岗位向保护工人进行再平衡,降低劳动力市场的二元性和不规范性 -- Rebalance protection from jobs to workers and reduce labour market duality and informality
4. 改善职业教育、职业培训、高等教育和技能培训与再培训的普及与效率 -- Improve access and efficiency of vocational education and training, tertiary education, skilling and reskilling
5. 通过提高早期幼儿教育、基础教育和中等教育的普及性与质量来改善教育产出 -- Improve educational outcomes through widening access and raising quality of early childhood, primary and secondary education
6. 推动创造高质量的就业岗位,提高劳动生产率 -- Promote quality job creation and enhance labour productivity
(三)鼓励创新的指导原则 Encouraging innovation
1. 确保并维持研发支出 -- Ensure and sustain research and development expenditures
2. 提高研发及创新支持政策的有效性和效率 -- Raise effectiveness and efficiency of research and development and innovation support policies
3. 增强研究机构/大学与产业界的合作 -- Strengthen collaboration between research institutions/universities and industry
4. 加强国际研究合作 -- Improve international research cooperation
5. 提高早期风险投资的可得性 -- Improve access to early-stage venture capital
(四)改善基础设施的指导原则 Improving infrastructure
1. 提高公共基础设施投资质量(同时确保基础设施及其维护所需的充足资金),并通过包括政府和社会资本合作在内的方式促进私人部门参与 -- Raise the quality of public infrastructure investment (while ensuring sufficient financing for infrastructure and infrastructure maintenance) and promote private sector participation including through the use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)
2. 提高基础设施项目的监管审批效率,同时确保投标过程透明 -- Raise the efficiency of regulatory approval processes for infrastructure projects, while ensuring transparent bidding processes
3. 促进在公共基础设施项目中使用成本收益及“物有所值”分析,可采用多标准分析作为补充 -- Promote the use of cost-benefit and value-for-money analysis, possibly supplemented by multi-criteria analysis, for public infrastructure projects
4. 减少机构投资者长期投资融资的制度障碍和监管障碍,并推广新的融资工具,同时确保财务稳定 -- Reduce institutional and regulatory barriers for long-term investment financing by institutional investors and promote new financial instruments while ensuring financial stability
(五)促进财政改革的指导原则 Promoting fiscal reform
1. 通过增长友好型税收/缴费和支出措施的支持,推动可持续的、全面的社会保障项目 -- Promote sustainable and comprehensive social protection programs which are supported by growth-friendly tax/contribution and expenditure measures
2. 拓宽税基,并逐步消除低效的税收支出 -- Broaden the tax base and phase-out inefficient tax expenditures
3. 确定增长友好型支出的重点,保持生产性公共投资并提高支出效率 -- Prioritise growth-friendly expenditure, preserve productive public investment and improve efficiency in spending
4. 提高税款征收的透明度和效率 -- Improve the transparency and efficiency of tax collection
5. 改善公共行政管理及公共服务供给的效率 -- Improve the efficiency of public administration and public service delivery
6. 加强财政框架、规则和制度的作用 -- Strengthen the role of fiscal frameworks, rules and institutions
7. 重点打击骗税和逃税 -- Focus on fighting tax fraud and tax evasion
(六)促进竞争并改善商业环境的指导原则 Promoting competition and an enabling environment
1. 强化竞争法律及落实 -- Strengthen competition law and enforcement
2. 减少开办企业和扩大经营的行政及法律障碍 -- Reduce administrative and legal barriers to starting and expanding a business
3. 促进公平的市场竞争 -- Promote a level playing field for market competition
4. 实施高效的破产程序 -- Implement efficient bankruptcy procedures
5. 减少妨碍竞争的限制性规定,减少额外的监管合规负担,并对监管政策进行有效监督 -- Reduce restrictive regulations that impair competition, lessen the excess burden of regulatory compliance and apply sound oversight of regulatory policy
6. 加强法治,提高司法效率,打击腐败 -- Enhance the rule of law, improve the efficiency of the judicial system and fight against corruption
(七)改善并强化金融体系的指导原则 Improving and strengthening the financial system
1. 确保金融稳定 -- Ensure financial stability
2. 支持增长,加强竞争和创新,同时保持审慎目标 -- Support growth, enhance competition and innovation while maintaining prudential objectives
3. 确保有利于市场融资的制度框架,同时确保金融稳定并保护投资者 -- Ensure that the institutional framework is conducive to market finance, while ensuring financial stability and investor protection
4. 改善并强化传统银行融资和创新融资渠道,同时确保金融稳定 -- Improve and strengthen access to both traditional bank financing and innovative sources of finance, while ensuring financial stability
5. 防范金融机构活动的内生系统性风险,强化宏观审慎政策框架 -- Prevent systemic risks inherent in activities of financial institutions; strengthen macroprudential policy framework
(八)增强环境可持续性的指导原则 Enhancing environmental sustainability
1. 推广市场机制以减少污染并提高资源效率 -- Extend the use of market-based mechanisms to mitigate pollution and increase resource efficiency
2. 促进清洁和可再生能源以及气候适应性基础设施的发展 -- Promote the development of clean and renewable energy and climate-resilient infrastructure
3. 推动与环境有关的创新的开发及运用 -- Promote the development and deployment of environment-related innovations
4. 提高能源效率 -- Improve energy efficiency
(九)促进包容性增长的指导原则 Promoting inclusive growth
1. 通过降低就业壁垒以及改善教育和培训产出,改善机会平等 -- Improve equality of opportunity by reducing barriers to employment and improving outcomes in education and training
2. 扩大学前、初等教育和中等教育的覆盖面并提高效率 -- Expand coverage and enhance efficiency of pre-school, primary and secondary education
3. 以增长和就业友好的方式开展有针对性的、设计完善的社会转移支付及收入再分配计划 -- Provide social transfers and income redistribution programs that are well targeted and designed in a growth- and employment-friendly way
4. 促进普惠金融和金融知识普及 -- Promote financial inclusion and financial literacy
5. 减少性别平等障碍,特别是在教育、就业和创业领域 -- Reduce barriers to gender equality, particularly with respect to education, employment and entrepreneurship
6. 采取措施减少某些促增长政策对不平等问题可能造成的负面影响 -- Adopt measures to mitigate the possible adverse impact of certain pro-growth policies on inequality
正如经济合作与发展组织(OECD)所概括的,这些原则为G20成员在各优先领域下考虑开展改革提供了有用的高级别指导。需要注意的是,这些指导原则是在自愿基础上加以使用。这些原则不具有约束性及规范性,因为它们未必适用于所有准备在九大优先领域实施改革的国家。G20成员们认识到,在特定优先领域下开展改革时,应在不同的指导原则之间保持平衡。 As outlined by the OECD, principles provide useful, high-level guidance to members when considering reforms in a given priority area. It is important to note that the principles above are intended to be used on a voluntary basis. They are non-binding and non-prescriptive, as they do not necessarily apply to all countries planning to undertake reforms in the nine priority areas discussed above. G20 members recognize that a balance needs to be struck between different principles when undertaking reforms within a priority area.
G20成员可使用优先领域和指导原则引导开展政策改革,包括用于更新增长战略。2016年,我们鼓励G20成员自愿运用九大优先领域,在本国增长战略中探讨使用新的结构性改革政策。 The priorities and guiding principles may be used by members to help guide future policy reform efforts, including in the context of updating their growth strategies. In 2016, members have been encouraged to utilize, on a voluntary basis, the nine priority areas in discussing new structural reform policies in their 2016 growth strategies.
四、量化框架:指标体系 Quantitative Framework: Indicator System
如前文所述,《G20深化结构性改革议程》的重要内容之一是建立一个指标体系,以更好地评估和监测G20成员在结构性改革方面的进展和成效,及其是否足以应对结构性挑战。经过广泛讨论,并在国际组织特别是OECD的支持下,增长框架工作组就量化框架下一套共同的核心指标达成共识。这些核心指标旨在与《G20问责评估报告》以及IMF根据《G20衡量过度外部失衡的参考性指南》起草的《可持续性评估报告更新》中已使用的指标相互补充,避免彼此重复。 As indicated above, the development of an indicator system to enhance the assessment and monitoring of the progress and effectiveness of G20 members' structural reform efforts and their adequacy to address structural challenges is an important component of the enhanced structural reform agenda. Following extensive discussions and with the support of international organizations, particularly the OECD, members of the Framework Working Group have agreed on the following common set of core indicators for the quantitative framework. This set of core indicators is intended to complement rather than duplicate the indicators already used in the G20 Accountability Assessment Report as well as the IMF's Update of Staff Sustainability Assessment, developed through the G20 Indicative Guidelines.
(此处插入图表,内容请见新华社新闻图片专线所配发的相关稿件)
OECD和世界银行关于上述指标的更多说明见附件(略)。 The annex provides further information from the OECD and World Bank Group on each of these indicators.
指标体系将在今后不断调整以使之更加全面,特别是将纳入更多指标以覆盖其他优先领域。 It is expected that this indicator system will evolve over time to enhance its comprehensiveness, in particular to include additional indicators to cover other priority areas.
关于数据来源,这些指标只使用已公开可得数据。在多数情况下,数据将主要来源于国际组织。当国际组织数据与国别数据存在明显差别或有较大数据缺口时,国际组织将与G20成员进行协商。个别情况下,如果国际组织没有某成员在某个指标上的数据,该成员可提出有数据来源的其他指标进行代替。成员提出的建议替代指标应适于对优先领域进行评估,且可能需同国际组织就该指标与原指标的总体可比性进行讨论。 With respect to data sources, the indicators make use only of data that is already publicly available. In most cases, international organizations will be the main source of data for the above indicators, and international organizations will discuss with members where significant inconsistencies or substantial data gaps as compared with national data sources exist. In those few cases where the international organizations do not currently collect the data on an indicator for a member, the member may propose an alternative indicator for which they collect the data. Members' proposed alternative indicators should be appropriate for assessing the priorities and would require discussion with international organizations on the overall comparability with the missing common indicators.
指标的使用 Usage of Indicators
如前所述,建立指标体系的主要目的是对G20在结构性改革领域的进展及其是否足以应对结构性挑战进行评估和监测。在此背景下,OECD将在吸收其他国际组织意见的基础上准备一份技术报告,利用这套共同指标协助评估G20在九大优先领域的进展和挑战。报告内容主要分两部分: As mentioned, a key purpose of the development of the indicator system is to help assess and monitor the progress of G20 structural reforms and their adequacy to address structural challenges, taking into account the diversity of country circumstances. In this context, the OECD will produce a technical report, with input from other international organizations, using the common set of indicators to help assess G20 progress and challenges within the structural reform priority areas. The report will consist of two components:
1. 使用相关指标评估G20整体在优先领域的改革情况,对于不存在各方一致认可指标的优先领域,将补充使用公开可得的其他信息进行评估。 -- An assessment of the G20’s collective structural reform efforts in the priority areas drawing on the data on the indicators and supplemented by other publicly available information specifically for those priority areas with no agreed-upon indicators.
2. 使用“仪表板”(Dashboard)方法对各国指标进行解读。 -- A description of individual members’ data on indicators presented using a dashboard approach.
G20增长战略,包括同行审议,以及OECD技术报告的有关信息将视情纳入《G20问责评估报告》。包含国别系列指标图表的“仪表板”可作为《G20问责评估报告》的附件。这些图表将展示成员在一段时间内各项指标的变化。 Relevant information from the G20 growth strategies, including the peer reviews, and the OECD technical report will feed into the annual G20 Accountability Assessment Report as appropriate. Dashboards consisting of a series of charts for each member could be included in the Accountability Assessment Report. The charts would illustrate the member's changes against each of the indicators over time.
从2017年起,OECD将每两年准备一份技术报告,与IMF根据《G20衡量过度外部失衡的参考性指南》起草的《可持续性报告更新》保持同步。各指标的数据将以2016年为基准,并将用于2017年及之后的技术报告中。 The frequency of the OECD technical report will be every two years to coincide with the IMF's Update of Staff Sustainability Assessments based on the G20 Indicative Guidelines, beginning in 2017. Data available in 2016 will form the benchmark for each of the indicators and will be used to produce the technical report in 2017 going forward.
需要注意的是,在讨论指标分析结果时,还应反映各国国情。我们也认识到,并非所有国家都会同时在所有优先领域开展改革。指标将以“仪表板”方式呈现,但其意图并非用于跨国比较,而是展示各成员在国别层面的进展。 It is important to note that national circumstances will need to be reflected in the discussion of the results of the indicators. It is also understood that not all countries will necessarily be pursuing reforms in all priority areas at the same time. While the indicators will be presented in a dashboard approach, these are not meant for cross-country comparisons, but rather to demonstrate daevelopments at the member level over time.
此外,各成员也可以在制定本国增长战略及开展同行审议过程中,自行选择使用其他的政策指标和产出指标,就改革对促增长的预期效果开展自我量化评估,以强化对结构性政策挑战的分析和对改革进展的监测。对于这类指标,各成员可自行选择数据来源。 Furthermore, members may use additional policy and outcome indicators of their own choosing and give their own quantitative assessment of expected growth impact of reforms within their growth strategies as well as during the peer review process, to enhance the analysis of structural policy challenges as well as to monitor the progress of structural reforms. Members may use their own data sources for these additional indicators.
五、结论 Conclusion
结构性改革对提高生产率和潜在产出、促进包容性增长具有重要作用。《G20深化结构性改革议程》涵盖了改革的优先领域、指导原则和指标体系,展示了G20对有效、有力实施结构性改革的承诺,也是G20促进强劲、可持续、平衡增长努力的一部分。加大对结构性改革的重视将有助于提高潜在增长,使G20经济体更具创新性、强劲、有韧性。 Structural reforms play an essential role in boosting productivity and potential output as well as fostering inclusive growth. The G20's enhanced structural reform agenda, comprising the priority areas, their guiding principles and the indicator system, demonstrates the G20’s commitment to the implementation of effective and impactful structural reforms as part of its efforts to foster strong, sustainable and balanced growth. An increased focus on implementing structural reforms will help bolster potential growth and make G20 economies more innovative, strong and resilient.
增长框架工作组将寻求机会继续完善《G20深化结构性改革议程》。《G20深化结构性改革议程》将纳入增长框架工作组现有工作中,作为帮助评估各成员国结构性改革努力的一项工具。在2016年的基础上,今后可能将可能加入其他政策指标和产出指标以强化现有指标体系。此外,增长框架工作组还将继续视情探讨运用指标体系的其他途径,以充实对各国所面临结构性挑战的分析,并监测结构性改革的实施进展。

The Framework Working Group will look for opportunities to continue to improve the G20's enhanced structural reform agenda. This enhanced structural reform agenda will be incorporated into the existing workstream of the Framework Working Group as a tool to help assist members' structural reform efforts. Building on the foundation laid in 2016, other policy and outcome indicators may be added in future years to enhance the system. Moreover, the Framework Working Group will continue, as appropriate, to explore additional ways to utilize the indicator system to enrich analyses of the structural challenges members face and to monitor progress with the implementation of structural reforms.

 

(Source: Xinhua)

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