2016年美国的人权纪录(全文)
Full text: Human Rights Record of the United States in 2016

 
Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2017-05-11
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国务院新闻办公室3月9日发表《2016年美国的人权纪录》,回应美国发布的“国别人权报告”。全文如下: The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a report titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2016" on Thursday. Following is the full text of the report:
2016年美国的人权纪录
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2017年3月
Human Rights Record of the United States in 2016
State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China
March 2017
目 录 Contents
导言 Foreword
一、生命人身权利受到严重侵犯 I. Serious Infringement on Right to Life, Personal Security
二、政治权利遭到践踏 II. Political Rights Undermined
三、中低收入群体生活状况堪忧 III. Grim Living Conditions of Low- and Middle-income Americans
四、种族歧视愈演愈烈 IV. Racial Discrimination Worsened
五、妇女儿童老年人权利缺乏应有保障 V. Women, Children, Elders' Rights Lack Proper Protection
六、粗暴侵犯他国人权 VI. Gross Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries
导言 Foreword
当地时间3月3日,美国国务院发布《2016年国别人权报告》,继续以“人权裁判官”自居,挥舞“人权大棒”,对世界各国人权状况品头论足、横加指责,而对美国自身存在的严重人权问题则全然不顾。人们不禁要问,2016年美国的人权状况到底如何呢?事实说明,2016年美国的人权状况在一些重要方面继续呈恶化趋势。“自由女神”背后不绝于耳的枪声,愈演愈烈的种族歧视问题,以及金钱政治主导下的选举闹剧,使自诩的“人权卫士”以自己的行为戳穿了其编造的人权“神话”。 On March 3 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices, posing once again as "the judge of human rights". Wielding "the baton of human rights," it pointed fingers and cast blame on the human rights situation in many countries while paying no attention to its own terrible human rights problems. People cannot help asking about the actual human rights situation of the United States in 2016. Concrete facts show that the United States saw continued deterioration in some key aspects of its existent human rights issues last year. With the gunshots lingering in people's ears behind the Statue of Liberty, worsening racial discrimination and the election farce dominated by money politics, the self-proclaimed human rights defender has exposed its human rights "myth" with its own deeds.
——涉枪犯罪持续高发,监禁率居高不下。全年共发生枪击事件58125起,其中大的枪击事件385起,共造成15039人死亡,30589人受伤,死伤惨重。(注1)美国监禁率居世界第二,每10万居民中有693人被监禁,(注2)受过监禁的人数高达7000万,占成年人的三分之一。(注3) -- The frequent occurrence of gun-related crimes led to heavy casualties and the incarceration rate remained high. There were a total of 58,125 gun violence incidents, including 385 mass shootings, in the United States in 2016, leaving 15,039 killed and 30,589 injured (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 31, 2016). The United States had the second highest prisoner rate, with 693 prisoners per 100,000 of the national population (www.statista.com, April 2016). There had been 70 million Americans incarcerated - that's almost one in three adults - with some form of criminal record (harvardlawreview.org, January 5, 2017).
——贫富差距不断扩大,中低收入群体生活状况堪忧。2016年,美国成年人全职工作比例创1983年以来最低水平。(注4)过去30年将近70%的收入流入到最富有的10%的人的腰包,(注5)中产阶级规模出现拐点式萎缩。4500万贫困人口生活困难,(注6)七分之一的美国人生活在贫困线以下。(注7)预期寿命20多年来首次出现总体下降,平均寿命从78.9岁下降到78.8岁。(注8) -- Livelihood of middle- and low-income groups was worrisome amid widening income gap. In 2016, the proportion of adult Americans who had a full-time job hit a record low since 1983. Over the last three decades, nearly 70 percent of income ended up in the pockets of the wealthiest 10 percent. The population of U.S. middle-class registered a turning point toward contraction. Besides, one out of seven Americans remained in poverty, with life of 45 million people in strained circumstances. The average life expectancy fell from 78.9 years to 78.8 years as the United States posted a drop in overall life expectancy for the first time in over 20 years.
——种族主义持续存在,种族关系日趋恶化。2016年,联合国人权理事会非洲裔问题专家工作组向联合国人权理事会提交正式调查报告,称美国国内种族问题严重,没有解决好殖民历史、奴隶制、种族隔离、种族不平等和种族恐怖主义等问题。警察枪杀使人联想起过去奴隶制私刑处死的种族恐怖主义行为,美国正面临一场“人权危机”。(注9) -- Racism continued to exist and racial relations worsened. In 2016, the United Nations' Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent reported to the United Nations Human Rights Council that racial problems were severe in the United States. The colonial history, enslavement, racial subordination and segregation, racial terrorism and racial inequality in the United States remained a serious challenge. Police killings were reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching. The United States was undergoing a "human rights crisis" (www.un.org, August 18, 2016).
——妇女儿童老年人权利保障状况未见改善,弱势群体权利受到严重侵犯。女性收入大幅低于男性,纽约市公共部门的性别薪资差距达18%,(注10)加利福尼亚州薪酬等于或低于最低工资的劳工六成是妇女。(注11)性骚扰、性侵犯事件频发,约四分之一的女性曾在工作中受到过性骚扰,(注12)近两成年轻女性在大学四年期间遭到过性侵犯。(注13)儿童贫困率居高不下,680万名10-17岁的青少年处于食品匮乏状态。(注14)虐待老年人事件时有发生,每年约有500万老年人遭到虐待。(注15) -- There was no improvement to the protection of rights of women, children and elders, and the vulnerable groups' rights were seriously violated. Women were paid much less compared to their male colleagues. Women with city government jobs in New York made 18 percent less than men (www.nydailynews.com, April 11, 2016). Women comprised about 60 percent of California workers earning minimum wage or less (www.sandiegouniontribune.com, April 10, 2016). Sexual harassments and assaults took place frequently. Roughly one in four women said they have been harassed on the job (www.usatoday.com, July 7, 2016). A total of 20 percent of young women who attended college during a four-year span said they had been sexually assaulted (www.washingtonpost.com, March 5, 2016). Poverty rate among children remained high and an estimated 6.8 million people aged 10 to 17 are food insecure (www.urban.org, September 11, 2016). Cases of elder abuse happened from time to time and about 5 million older adults were subject to abuse each year (www.csmonitor.com, June 15, 2016).
——侵犯他国人权现象屡有发生,肆意滥杀无辜。2014年8月8日至2016年12月19日,美国空袭伊拉克7258次,空袭叙利亚5828次,造成733起平民死亡事件,共导致4568-6127名平民死亡。(注16)2009年以来,美国无人机攻击仅在巴基斯坦、也门和索马里就造成超过800名平民伤亡。(注17)非法关押和虐待他国囚犯问题迟迟未得到解决。 -- The United States repeatedly trampled on human rights in other countries and willfully slaughtered innocent victims. From August 8, 2014 to December 19, 2016, the United States launched 7,258 air strikes in Iraq and 5,828 in Syria, causing 733 incidents with an estimated number of civilian deaths between 4,568 and 6,127 (airwars.org, December 19, 2016). Since 2009, the upper limit of the civilian death toll from U.S. drones stood at more than 800 people in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. (www.theguardian.com, July 1, 2016) The issue of illegal detention and torturing prisoners of other countries remained unsolved.
——拒绝批准核心国际人权公约,拒不接受联合国有关人权决议草案。美国至今仍未批准《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《儿童权利公约》和《残疾人权利公约》等核心国际人权公约。在2016年第71届联合国大会期间,美国对关于“发展权”“人权与单方面强制措施”“促进建立一个民主和公平的国际秩序”“和平权利宣言”等涉及人权的决议草案投了反对票。(注18) -- The United States refused to approve core international conventions on human rights and did not accept UN draft resolutions related to human rights. It still has not ratified core international human rights conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. At the 71st General Assembly of the UN, the United States voted against draft resolutions related to human rights including "The right to development," "Human rights and unilateral coercive measures," "Promotion of a democratic and equitable international order," and "Declaration on the right to peace" (www.un.org, December 19, 2016).

(注1) 美国枪支暴力档案室网站(http://www.gunviolencearchive.org),2016年12月31日。

(注2) 美国市场研究公司网站(https://www.statista.com),2016年4月。

(注3) 《哈佛法律评论》网站(http://harvardlawreview.org),2017年1月5日。

(注4) 盖洛普咨询公司网站(http://www.gallup.com),2016年9月20日。

(注5) 《新闻人》网站(http://www.newser.com),2016年12月8日。

(注6) 英国《每日邮报》网站(http://www.dailymail.co.uk),2016年9月10日。

(注7) 英国《每日邮报》网站(http://www.dailymail.co.uk),2016年9月10日。

(注8) 《美国新闻》网站(http://www.usnews.com),2016年12月8日。

(注9) 联合国网站(http://www.un.org),2016年8月18日。

(注10) 《纽约每日新闻》网站(http://www.nydailynews.com),2016年4月11日。

(注11) 《圣迭戈联合论坛报》网站(http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com),2016年4月10日。

(注12) 《今日美国》网站(http://www.usatoday.com),2016年7月7日。

(注13) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(https://www.washingtonpost.com),2016年3月5日。

(注14) 美国城市研究所网站(http://www.urban.org),2016年9月11日。

(注15) 《基督教科学箴言报》网站(http://www.csmonitor.com),2016年6月15日。

(注16) 空中战争跟踪组织网站(http://airwars.org),2016年12月19日。

(注17) 英国《卫报》网站(https://www.theguardian.com),2016年7月1日。

(注18) 联合国网站(http://www.un.org),2016年12月19日。



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