2017年国民经济和社会发展计划报告(全文)
Full text: Report on China's economic, social development plan (2017)

 
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3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。 [新华社]

3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。 [新华社]
The fifth session of the 12th National People's Congress opens at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2017. [Photo/Xinhua]

关于2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Report on the Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2017 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

——2017年3月5日在第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议上

Delivered at the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress on March 5, 2017

国家发展和改革委员会

National Development and Reform Commission

各位代表: Esteemed Deputies,
受国务院委托,现将2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十二届全国人大五次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。 The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the implementation of the 2016 plan and on the 2017 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
一、2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况 I. Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development
去年以来,国内外环境复杂严峻,世界经济艰难复苏,国内经济下行压力依然较大。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,认真执行十二届全国人大四次会议审议批准的2016年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会的审查意见,以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线,适度扩大总需求,坚定推进改革,妥善应对风险挑战,引导形成良好社会预期,扎实做好各项工作,经济社会保持平稳健康发展,“十三五”实现良好开局,计划执行情况总体是好的。 Last year, conditions both at home and abroad were complex and challenging; the global economic recovery struggled to take effect while downward pressure on China's economy remained significant. However, under the firm leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all regions and departments continued to follow the general principle of making progress while keeping performance stable, upheld the new development philosophy, earnestly implemented the 2016 plan approved at the Fourth Session of the Twelfth NPC, and acted in line with the review of the plan by the NPC's Financial and Economic Affairs Committee. In accordance with the keynote of advancing supply-side structural reform, we appropriately increased aggregate demand, advanced reform with determination, responded effectively to risks and challenges, guided public expectations to ensure they remained positive, and worked hard to deliver a good performance in all areas of work. As a result, economic and social development remained stable and healthy, the 13th Five-Year Plan got off to a good start, and implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development was successful overall.
(一)创新和加强宏观调控,经济运行保持在合理区间。在区间调控基础上,加强定向调控、相机调控,积极的财政政策力度加大,稳健的货币政策灵活适度,确保经济平稳运行。国内生产总值达到74.41万亿元,增长6.7%,符合预期。

1. We developed new and better ways of conducting macro regulation to keep the economy operating within an appropriate range.

On the basis of range-based regulation, we strengthened targeted and well-timed regulation and pursued a more proactive fiscal policy as well as a prudent monetary policy that retained an appropriate degree of flexibility so as to ensure that economic performance was stable. China's gross domestic product (GDP) rose to 74.41 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.7%, meeting our projected target.

图表1:2016年各季度国内生产总值和经济增长率 新华社发

Figure 1. Quarterly GDP and Growth Rate in 2016
一是消费基础作用进一步增强。促进消费带动转型升级的行动方案出台,“十大扩消费行动”全面推进。促进绿色消费、实体零售创新转型、交通物流融合发展的政策出台实施。进一步扩大旅游文化体育健康养老教育培训等领域消费的意见发布实施,服务消费蓬勃兴起,汽车等实物消费扩大升级。激发重点群体活力带动城乡居民增收的实施意见出台,居民消费能力持续提升。社会消费品零售总额增长10.4%。消费在经济增长中发挥主要拉动作用,贡献率达到64.6%,消费和投资的比例关系进一步改善。

1) Consumption played a more fundamental role.

The action plan to stimulate industrial transformation and upgrading through increased consumption was formulated, and the Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending were implemented. We implemented the policies for promoting green consumption, transformation of physical retail businesses through innovation, and integrated development of transportation and logistics. The guidelines on further boosting consumer spending in tourism, culture, sports, health, elderly care, education, and training services were promulgated and implemented; the consumption of services flourished; and consumer spending on automobiles and other physical goods was increased and upgraded. We formulated the guidelines on providing incentives to key groups to promote an overall increase in urban and rural incomes, and people's ability to consume continued to increase. Total retail sales of consumer goods for the year rose by 10.4%. Consumption served as a major driver of economic growth, making a 64.6% contribution. And there was a further improvement in the ratio between consumption and investment.

专栏1:十大扩消费行动 新华社发

Box 1: Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending
二是投资保持稳定增长。围绕补短板、调结构、增供给,努力扩大合理有效投资。中央预算内投资结构继续优化,政府投资项目储备库和三年滚动投资计划初步形成,重大工程建设加快推进。着力调动民间投资积极性,制定促进民间投资“26条”政策,加大政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式推广力度。全社会固定资产投资增长7.9%,民间投资占固定资产投资(不含农户)比重为61.2%。

2) Investment sustained steady growth.

Strengthening areas of weakness, making structural adjustment, and increasing supply were our primary focus in working to increase rational and effective investment. We further improved the structure of investments falling within the central government budget, took initial steps to set up the reserve of government investment projects and formulate the three-year rolling investment plan, and stepped up the construction of major projects. We channeled great energy into stimulating private investment, formulated a 26-point policy to ensure its sound development, and worked to expand the application of public-private partnership (PPP) models. Total fixed-asset investment for the year rose by 7.9%, of which 61.2% came from nongovernmental sources (excluding rural households).

专栏2:促进民间投资健康发展 新华社发

Box 2: Measures for Encouraging Sound Development of Private Investment
三是就业形势总体较好。基层就业社保服务设施和公共实训基地建设加快推进,高校毕业生和化解过剩产能职工就业服务工作力度加大,支持农民工等人员返乡创业试点持续推进。全年城镇新增就业1314万人,年末城镇登记失业率4.02%。

3) The overall employment situation remained positive.

We sped up efforts to develop community-level facilities providing employment and social security services and to establish public vocational training centers, provided better services to college graduates as well as to workers laid off due to the scaling-down of overcapacity, and continued to advance pilot projects to support rural migrant workers returning home to set up businesses. An additional 13.14 million urban jobs were created over the year, and the registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.02% at the end of 2016.

图表2:城镇新增就业 新华社发

Figure 2. Urban Jobs Created
四是价格总水平基本稳定。大宗商品价格调控进一步强化,生猪价格调控有效开展,汛期、重点节假日蔬菜等重要商品价格监测预警和调控监管加强。价格监管和反垄断执法强力推进,先后查处了数起反垄断案件。全年居民消费价格上涨2.0%。

4) Overall prices were generally stable.

We increased regulation over commodity prices, effectively carried out regulation over the price of hogs, and strengthened monitoring, early warning, regulation, and oversight over the prices of major commodities such as vegetables during the flood season and major holidays. Oversight over pricing was tightened up and law enforcement efforts to counter monopolistic pricing intensified with numerous cases being investigated and dealt with. The consumer price index (CPI) for the year rose by 2.0%.

五是各类风险挑战得到妥善应对。加强对外投资活动真实性审查,引导对外投资健康有序发展。按照市场化、法治化原则防范化解债券违约风险。因城因地施策,分类调控房地产市场。防范应对部分地区特别是长江流域发生的严重洪涝等灾害,及时有力开展抢险救灾,最大限度降低了灾害损失,恢复重建有序进行。

5) Risks and challenges were handled appropriately.

We stepped up reviews to verify the authenticity of outbound investment projects and worked to ensure the sound and orderly development of overall outbound investment. We employed market-oriented, law-based measures to guard against and defuse bond default risks. Policies tailored to local conditions were implemented to regulate the real estate market on a per-category basis. We worked to guard against and deal with severe flooding in some regions, particularly the Yangtze basin, as well as other natural disasters, and acted quickly to provide effective rescue and relief so as to minimize damage, and ensure recovery and reconstruction efforts proceeded in an orderly manner.

(二)扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,“三去一降一补”五大重点任务初见成效。加强政策引导和支持,建立工作推进机制,去产能、去库存、去杠杆、降成本、补短板取得初步成效。

2. We worked to secure solid progress in supply-side structural reform,achieving initial success in the five priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening points of weakness.

By enhancing policy guidance and support and establishing an effective work mechanism, we achieved preliminary progress in our efforts to carry out the five priority tasks.

一是去产能年度任务提前超额完成。《国务院关于钢铁行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕6号)和《国务院关于煤炭行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕7号)印发实施。组织开展了淘汰落后、违法违规建设项目清理、联合执法三个专项行动,严格控制新增产能,加快淘汰落后产能,有序引导过剩产能退出。积极做好职工安置和债务处置,推进企业兼并重组、转型升级和布局优化。及时妥善应对供需调整、价格波动影响。2016年退出钢铁和煤炭产能分别超过6500万吨和2.9亿吨,超额完成年度目标任务。钢铁、煤炭企业效益转好,拖欠减少,现金流紧张、安全投入欠账、工资欠发缓发等问题得到一定缓解,行业运行状况和市场预期有所改善。

1) Annual targets for cutting overcapacity were met ahead of schedule and were surpassed.

The State Council's Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Steel Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 6) and the State Council's Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Coal Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 7) were published and implemented. We launched three initiatives which focused on shutting down outdated production facilities, dealing with projects that violated laws and regulations, and carrying out coordinated law enforcement, thereby strictly controlling the expansion of production capacity, ensuring the shutting down of outdated production facilities was accelerated, and guiding the orderly elimination of overcapacity. We made appropriate arrangements to ensure that laid-off employees were resettled and provided employment and that enterprise debts were properly handled; and we encouraged businesses affected by overcapacity to merge, restructure, transform, and upgrade, or optimize business distribution.

We took timely and appropriate action in responding to the effects of adjustments in supply and demand and price fluctuations. In 2016, we reduced excess production capacity by over 65 million metric tons of steel and over 290 million metric tons of coal; both numbers surpassed the targets for the year. The steel and coal industries operated more efficiently: cases of companies being in arrears were reduced, cash-flow problems were eased, and problems of insufficient investment in workplace safety, overdue wages, and outstanding payments were alleviated to some extent. Overall, the performance of both industries as well as market expectations improved.

二是去库存加快推进。推动农业转移人口落户城镇,满足新市民住房需求,年末商品住宅待售面积比上年末减少4991万平方米。棚户区住房改造货币化安置比例进一步提高,全年货币化安置294万户,占全年棚改开工量的48.5%,比2015年提高18.6个百分点。

2) Work to cut excess inventory surged ahead.

We promoted the granting of urban residency to people who have moved to cities from rural areas and worked to ensure the housing needs of new urban residents were met, such that by the end of 2016, the area of commodity housing for sale was 49.91 million square meters less than it was at the end of 2015. We further expanded the use of direct monetary housing compensation for people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas. 2.94 million households received monetary housing compensation over the year, accounting for 48.5% of the year's newly-commenced projects to rebuild run-down urban areas; this marked an increase of 18.6 percentage points over 2015.

三是去杠杆成效初步显现。《国务院关于积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率的意见》(国发〔2016〕54号)印发实施。采取兼并重组、市场化法治化债转股、发展股权融资等综合性措施,积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率。启动市场化银行债权转股权,截至2016年底,多家商业银行通过实施机构共选择了资产负债率偏高但具有发展前景的行业龙头企业20家,自主协商达成债转股框架协议,协议金额超过2500亿元。2016年末,全国规模以上工业企业资产负债率55.8%,同比下降0.4个百分点。

3) Efforts to deleverage delivered initial results.

The State Council's Guidelines on Proactively yet Prudently Lowering Enterprise Leverage Ratios (G.F. [2016] No. 54) were published and implemented. We encouraged business mergers and restructuring, promoted market-oriented and law-based debt-for-equity swaps, developed equity financing, and adopted other comprehensive measures so as to reduce business leverage ratios in an active yet prudent way. We launched an initiative for enterprises to engage in market-based debt-for-equity swaps with banks. By the end of 2016, a number of commercial banks had selected, via relevant agencies, 20 leading enterprises, which, despite having relatively high debt-to-asset ratios, had good prospects for development. Framework agreements on debt-for-equity swaps were drawn up with these enterprises on the basis of independent consultation, and are worth over 250 billion yuan. At the end of 2016, the debt-to-asset ratio of nationwide industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more was 55.8%, a year-on-year decrease of 0.4 percentage point.

四是降成本取得明显成效。《国务院关于印发降低实体经济企业成本工作方案的通知》(国发〔2016〕48号)印发实施。持续推进简政放权放管结合优化服务改革,降低制度性交易成本。全面推开营改增试点,阶段性降低“五险一金”缴费比例。实施煤电价格联动,推进输配电价改革,扩大电力直接交易规模,完善基本电价执行方式,降低企业用能成本。清理规范进出口环节、金融等领域涉企收费,推进铁路货运体制改革,开展物流业降本增效专项行动,印发实施推进物流大通道建设行动计划。2016年,规模以上工业企业每百元主营业务收入中的成本同比降低0.1元,利润率同比提高0.19个百分点。

4) Significant progress was achieved in reducing costs.

The State Council's Circular on Publishing the Work Plan on Reducing the Costs of Enterprises in the Real Economy (G.F. [2016] No. 48) was published and implemented. We continued to promote the reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services, thereby reducing transaction costs imposed by government. We extended trials of replacing business tax with value added tax (VAT) to all sectors and appropriately lowered the ratio of enterprise contributions for old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, maternity insurance, and housing provident fund schemes for the current stage. We implemented the mechanism for coupling the price of coal with that of electricity, promoted price reform of electricity transmission and distribution, increased the number of direct sales by electricity generation companies to users, and improved the implementation of the basic electricity pricing scheme, so as to lower enterprise energy costs. We reviewed and standardized fees and charges levied on enterprises related to imports and exports and financial services, pushed forward in reforming the freight transportation system for railways, launched a cost-reduction and performance-improvement campaign within the logistics industry, and published and implemented an action plan to develop logistics channels.

In 2016, industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more reduced their costs by 0.1 yuan per 100 yuan of income from their main business operations and increased their profit rate by 0.19 percentage point on a year-on-year basis.

图表3:降低实体经济企业成本 新华社发

Figure 3. Lowering Business Costs in the Real Economy
五是补短板力度加大。坚持既利当前又利长远,既重硬设施又重软能力,以市场化投融资方式带动银行贷款等资金投放,在脱贫攻坚、灾后水利恢复重建、社会事业、创新能力、新产业等关键领域和薄弱环节,抓好补短板建设。全年完成1000万以上农村贫困人口脱贫目标任务。

5) Efforts to strengthen points of weakness were intensified.

Keeping in mind the need to secure both short-term and long-term benefits and focusing on the development of both infrastructure and management and services, we pursued market-based investment and financing initiatives to stimulate bank loans and other forms of investment and worked to strengthen points of weakness in the key areas of poverty alleviation, post-disaster water conservancy restoration and reconstruction, social programs, innovation capacity-building, new industry, and other areas in need of attention. We achieved our target of helping more than 10 million rural residents lift themselves out of poverty over the course of the year.

(三)改革开放取得新突破,经济社会发展活力进一步释放。一批具有标志性、关键性的重大改革方案出台实施,重要领域和关键环节改革取得突破性进展,开放型经济发展水平不断提升。

3. We made new breakthroughs in reform and opening up, unleashing new impetus for economic and social development.

We launched a number of crucial signature reform plans, made breakthroughs in reform of major areas and key sectors, and improved the performance of China's open economy.

一是简政放权放管结合优化服务改革向纵深推进。在提前完成本届政府减少行政审批事项三分之一目标的基础上,去年又取消165项国务院部门及其指定地方实施的审批事项,清理规范192项审批中介服务事项、220项职业资格许可认定事项。第三次修订政府核准的投资项目目录。商事制度改革继续深化。全面推行“双随机、一公开”,增强事中事后监管的有效性,推进“互联网+政务服务”。市场准入负面清单制度改革试点开局良好。“放管服”四大平台建成运行。

1) Reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services were intensified.

The goal of the current administration to cut the number of items requiring government review by a third had been achieved ahead of schedule. On that basis, last year we cancelled the requirement on a further 165 items for review by State Council departments and authorized local governments. We also overhauled and standardized 192 items of intermediary services for government review as well as 220 items of approvals and accreditations for professional qualifications. The Catalog of Investment Projects Requiring Government Review was revised for the third time. Reform of the business system was deepened. We fully implemented the oversight model consisting of inspections of randomly selected entities by randomly selected inspectors and the public release of inspection results, made operational and post-operational oversight more effective, and promoted the Internet Plus government services model. The newly-launched reform piloting a negative list for market access yielded positive results. The four major platforms for streamlining administration, delegating more powers, improving regulation, and providing better services have all been assembled and are in operation.

专栏3:“放管服”改革 新华社发

Box 3: Reforms to Streamline Administration, Delegate More Powers, Improve Regulation, and Provide Better Services

图表4:四个平台 新华社发

Figure 4. The Four Major Platforms
二是投融资体制改革步伐加快。深化投融资体制改革意见、企业投资项目核准和备案管理条例出台,新一轮投融资体制改革全面展开。修订发布中央预算内投资补助和贴息项目管理办法,制定80个专项管理办法。济青、杭绍台等铁路吸引社会资本示范项目取得积极进展。

2) Reform of the investment and financing systems picked up pace.

Guidelines on deepening reform of the investment and financing systems and regulations on the review and reporting of investment projects for enterprises were introduced, spurring a new round of reform throughout the investment and financing systems. We revised regulations on the management of projects for which the central government budget provides investment and loan-interest subsidies, and formulated 80 specific documents concerning the management of such projects. Significant progress was made in demonstration initiatives to attract private capital for projects such as the Ji'nan-Qingdao and Hangzhou-Shaoxing-Taizhou railway lines.

三是价格改革继续深化。输配电价改革试点实现所有省级电网全覆盖。建立天然气管道运输定价新机制,占消费总量80%以上的非居民用气门站价格主要由市场主导形成。石油天然气交易市场加快发展。90%左右的城市已推广居民阶梯水电气价。全面推进医疗服务价格改革。铁路、民航旅客票价市场化程度明显提高。农业水价综合改革稳步推进。完善稻谷和小麦最低收购价政策,棉花、大豆目标价格改革试点深入推进。

3) Price reform was deepened.

Trials to reform electricity transmission-and-distribution prices were extended to all provincial-level grids. We established a new pricing mechanism for the pipeline transportation of natural gas, and worked to ensure that the market decided citygate prices of natural gas for non-household users, who accounted for over 80% of natural-gas consumption. Markets for trading petroleum and natural gas experienced rapid development. Around 90% of cities have adopted tiered pricing for household water, electricity, and natural gas usage. Price reforms for medical services were implemented across the board and pricing for passenger rail and airline tickets became noticeably more market based. Comprehensive pricing reform on water for agricultural use registered solid progress. We improved the minimum state purchase price policy on rice and wheat and pressed on with pilot reforms for ensuring base prices for cotton and soybeans.

专栏4:重点领域价格改革 新华社发

Box 4: Price Reform in Key Areas
四是国有企业和重点行业改革稳步开展。国企改革“1+N”文件体系基本形成,加快剥离办社会职能和解决历史遗留问题工作方案等配套文件出台,深化国企改革九项重点任务、十项改革试点扎实推进。第一批混合所有制改革试点进入实施阶段。第一批国有资本投资公司试点取得阶段性进展。31个省(区、市)电改方案获批复,公布了首批105个增量配电业务改革试点项目。各省(区、市)国有林场改革实施方案和内蒙古、吉林、黑龙江重点国有林区改革实施方案均已制定完成,浙江、湖南、江西等6省国有林场改革试点顺利完成。盐业体制改革方案出台,全面放开食盐出厂、批发和零售价格。改革玉米收储制度,将东北地区玉米临时收储政策调整为市场化收购加补贴新机制。政策性粮食和储备棉库存消化进展顺利。

4) Steady progress was made in the reform of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) and major industries.

In putting in place a framework that consists of the Guidelines on Deepening Reform of SOEs as well as supplementary documents, we promulgated work plans to more quickly relieve SOEs of their obligations to operate social programs and help them address other longstanding issues, and steadily pressed ahead with the nine major tasks for deepening SOE reform and the 10 pilot SOE reforms*. We implemented the pilot reform to introduce mixed ownership for an initial group of SOEs and made progress in the trials to establish the first group of state capital investment companies.

We approved reform plans for the electricity industries in 31 provinces,autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government, and released the first batch of 105 trial projects to increase the number of electricity distributors. Plans were formulated for reforming state forestry farms in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government and for reforming key state forestry areas in Inner Mongolia, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Trial reforms on state forestry farms were successfully concluded in Zhejiang, Hunan, Jiangxi, and three other provinces.

The plan for structural reform of the salt industry was issued, and all controls on producer, wholesale, and retail prices of salt were lifted. The system for purchasing and stockpiling corn was reformed, and the policy for temporary purchase and storage of corn in the northeast was replaced with a mechanism based on market-price purchases and supplementary subsidies. The work to reduce stockpiles of grain and cotton through the provision of policy support proceeded smoothly.

* They are to: ensure the power of the board of directors of SOEs; carry out competitive selection and employment of executives and managers; promote the professional management system; implement differentiated pay in SOEs; develop companies for state capital investment and operations; merge and reorganize central government enterprises; introduce mixed-ownership structures in some major sectors; allow employees of SOEs with mixed-ownership structures to hold shares in their employer company; make information on SOEs public; and relieve SOEs of their obligation to operate social programs and help them address any other longstanding issues.

专栏5:国有企业改革 新华社发

Box 5: Reform of SOEs
五是公平竞争市场环境加快形成。印发完善产权保护制度依法保护产权的意见,依法平等保护各种所有制经济权益。工业用地市场化配置改革试点稳步实施。在市场体系建设中建立公平竞争审查制度的意见出台,从源头上预防政府部门制定出台限制竞争的政策措施。社会信用体系建设取得新进展,出台政务、个人、电子商务领域诚信建设指导意见,50多个部门在12个领域开展失信联合惩戒、3个领域开展守信联合激励。打击侵权假冒合力增强,查办违法犯罪案件17万余件。国内贸易流通体制改革发展综合试点稳步推进。

5) Work to create a fair and competitive market was accelerated.

The guidelines on improving the property rights protection system and protecting property rights in accordance with the law were published so as to ensure the rights and interests of economic entities under all forms of ownership are subject to law-based protection on an equal footing. Steady progress was made in the pilot reform for market-based allocation of land designated for industrial purposes. Guidelines on establishing a review mechanism within the market system to ensure fair competition were issued so as to impose direct controls on government departments preventing them from adopting policies or measures that eliminate or stifle competition.

New headway was made in developing a credit rating system, and guidelines on enhancing the credit standing of governments and individuals, and within the e-commerce sector, were formulated. More than 50 departments worked together in 12 sectors to take punitive actions against those who act in bad faith and in three sectors to provide incentives to those who act in good faith. Coordinated efforts to combat infringements and counterfeiting were enhanced, with over 170,000 cases of illegal and criminal activities being investigated and handled. Steady progress was achieved in the comprehensive trials to reform and develop the domestic commodity distribution system.

 
六是财税金融改革有序推进。《国务院关于推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革的指导意见》(国发〔2016〕49号)出台实施。全面推开营改增试点,将建筑业、房地产业、金融业、生活服务业纳入营改增范围,并将所有企业新增不动产所含增值税纳入抵扣范围。全面实施资源税从价计征改革,开展水资源税改革试点。深化国有商业银行和开发性、政策性金融机构改革。存款保险制度平稳运行。上海自贸试验区部分金融开放创新举措推广至广东、天津、福建自贸试验区。“深港通”开启。

6) Fiscal, tax, and financial reforms proceeded in an orderly manner.

The State Council's Guidelines on Advancing Reform for the Sharing of Fiscal Authority and Spending Responsibilities between the Central and Local Governments (G.F. [2016] No. 49) were promulgated and implemented. We extended trials to replace business tax with VAT to all sectors, including the construction, real estate, financial, and consumer service industries, and ensured that VAT deductions cover all new immovable property of enterprises. Ad valorem rates were introduced for all resource taxes, and trial reforms to levy a water-resource tax were carried out. Reform of state-owned commercial banks as well as of development and policy-backed financial institutions were deepened. The deposit insurance system performed solidly. A number of measures for financial-sector opening up and innovation created by the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone were replicated in the pilot free trade zones in Guangdong, Tianjin, and Fujian. The Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect was launched.

七是社会领域改革加快推进。中央和国家机关公务用车制度改革全面完成,地方党政机关公车改革深入推进。行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩改革第二批试点启动实施。加快不动产统一登记制度落地,全国100%的地(市、州)、98%的县(市、区)实现“发新停旧”。国家科技计划管理改革继续深化,以增加知识价值为导向的分配政策出台,科技成果转化力度加大。教育领域综合改革向纵深推进。分级诊疗制度建设持续推进,城乡居民基本医疗保险制度整合取得实质性进展,个人卫生支出占卫生总费用的比重下降到28.9%。《国务院办公厅关于全面放开养老服务市场提升养老服务质量的若干意见》(国办发〔2016〕91号)印发实施。稳步推进机关事业单位养老保险制度改革。加快构建中国特色哲学社会科学,实施哲学社会科学创新工程。足球改革加快推进。

7) Social reforms were accelerated.

Reform of the system for the use of official vehicles was completed in all organs of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council and its implementation was deepened in local Party and government bodies. A second group of trials to delink industry associations and chambers of commerce from the government were launched. Implementation of a unified registration system for immovable property was accelerated, with 100% of prefectures, prefecture-level cities, and autonomous prefectures and 98% of counties, county-level cities, and districts across the country issuing new certificates to replace old ones. Management reform for state science and technology initiatives was deepened, profit distribution policies were developed with the goal of strengthening the value ascribed to knowledge, and efforts to apply scientific and technological advances were intensified. Comprehensive education reform was stepped up.

The system of tiered diagnosis and treatment was further developed, and substantive progress was made in integrating the basic medical insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents. The proportion of health care expenses borne by individuals dropped to 28.9%. Guidelines on Fully Opening up the Elderly Care Market and Improving Elderly Care Services (G.B.F. [2016] No. 91) by the State Council's General Office were published and implemented. We made steady progress in reforming the pension system for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions.

We moved faster to develop philosophy and the social sciences with Chinese characteristics, and launched an initiative to encourage innovation in philosophy and the social sciences. We worked to speed up implementation of soccer reforms.

专栏6:社会领域改革 新华社发

Box 6: Social Reforms
八是以“一带一路”建设为统领推动开放型经济水平不断提升。“一带一路”建设进展快速。“六廊六路多国多港”主骨架建设稳步推进,战略对接、规划对接成效显著,中欧班列实现了统一品牌,累计开行近3000列。一批国际产能合作标志性工程落地,亚的斯亚贝巴-吉布提铁路正式通车,从投融资、技术标准到运营管理维护,全部采用中国标准,标志着中国铁路首次实现全产业链“走出去”。印尼雅万高铁、中老铁路、中泰铁路、马来西亚南部铁路、匈塞铁路、瓜达尔港等重大项目有序推进。外商投资便利化程度进一步提高,非金融类实际使用外资保持稳定。对外投资管理体制机制更加完善,非金融类对外投资继续增长。国际贸易“单一窗口”在沿海口岸全部启用,通关一体化、检验检疫一体化管理覆盖全国。全年货物贸易进出口总额下降0.9%,降幅比上年收窄6.1个百分点。服务贸易较快增长。人民币正式加入国际货币基金组织特别提款权(SDR)货币篮子。特别是成功主办二十国集团领导人杭州峰会,影响深远。

8) The Belt and Road Initiative served as pacesetter to an open economy that saw continuous improvement.

The Belt and Road (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road) Initiative saw rapid progress. Development of the Initiative's framework, which consists of six corridors and six channels serving multiple countries and ports*, made steady progress, enabling China and its partners to markedly increase cohesion between their development strategies and plans. China-Europe freight train services, which have registered a total of nearly 3,000 trips, were brought under a single unified brand.

A number of signature projects for international industrial-capacity cooperation got off the ground. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway officially came into service-from investment and financing to technology, operation, and management and maintenance, Chinese standards were applied throughout the project, making it the first full-production-chain export of China's railway. Steady progress was achieved in the construction of major international projects including railways connecting Jakarta and Bandung (high-speed railway), China and Laos, China and Thailand, and Hungary and Serbia; the railway project in southern Malaysia; and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan.

Further steps were taken to facilitate foreign investment, ensuring that utilized non-financial foreign investment remained stable. The regulation system and institutions for outbound investment were improved, which enabled further growth of outbound non-financial investment. All coastal ports installed and started using the Single Window System for foreign trade, and all ports throughout China successfully integrated customs clearance procedures and inspection and quarantine procedures.China experienced a 0.9% fall in total imports and exports for the year, which was 6.1 percentage points less than the previous year's decrease. Trade in services grew rapidly. The RMB was officially included in the International Monetary Fund's special drawing rights (SDR) basket. Of particular note was China's hosting of the G20 2016 Hangzhou Summit which produced important and far-reaching outcomes.

* The six corridors refer to economic corridors, comprising the New Eurasian Continental Bridge, the China-Mongolia-Russia corridor, the China-Central Asia-West Asia corridor, the China-Indochina Peninsula corridor, the China-Pakistan corridor, and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar corridor. The six channels refer to communications and distribution channels comprising highways, railways, airlines, waterways, pipelines, and information networks.

专栏7:重点开发开放功能平台建设 新华社发

Box 7: Major Platforms for Development and Opening up
(四)深入实施创新驱动发展战略,经济发展新动能加快成长。《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》印发实施,取得一批重大科技成果,高技术产业、装备制造业、战略性新兴产业较快增长,创新对发展的支撑作用增强。

4. We deepened implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, spurring the growth of new drivers for economic development.

The National Strategy for Innovation-Driven Development was published and implemented. With a number of major scientific and technological advances as well as rapid growth in high-tech industries, equipment manufacturing, and strategic emerging industries, innovation has played an increasingly important role in bolstering development.

一是创新能力持续提升。由点及面、有序布局重大科技创新平台建设,深入推进8个区域全面创新改革试验。北京、上海建设科技创新中心迈出新步伐。河北·京南、浙江、宁波3个国家科技成果转移转化示范区启动建设。首个国家高速列车技术创新中心建成。完全自主知识产权中国标准高速列车正式投入运营。建成世界最大单口径射电望远镜(FAST)等一批重大科技基础设施,在量子通信、航空航天等方面取得一批重大科技成果。国家科技重大专项深入实施,科技创新2030-重大项目遴选确定。大力推动企业技术创新,落实好研发费用加计扣除、股权激励和技术入股所得税优惠、完善高新技术企业认定办法等政策。

1) Innovation capacity continued to improve.

We ensured the progressive and orderly development of major science and technology innovation platforms, and deepened pilot reforms on all-around innovation in eight regions. New strides were made in setting up science and technology innovation centers in Beijing and Shanghai. Work began to establish three national demonstration zones for the transfer and commercialization of scientific and technological achievements in Hebei-southern Beijing, Zhejiang, and Ningbo. The first national technology innovation center for high-speed trains was established, and the first Chinese-standard high-speed trains for which we hold complete intellectual property rights went into service. A number of major science and technology infrastructure projects were completed such as the project to build the world's largest single-aperture radio telescope, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). A number of significant scientific and technological advances were achieved in sectors including quantum communications, space, and aviation.

We pressed ahead with implementing major national science and technology programs, and identified major projects for the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda. A big push was made to encourage technological innovation among enterprises, with policies being implemented in relation to extra tax deductions for R&D costs, equity-based incentives for undertaking innovation, income tax incentives for personnel who contribute their technological achievements to become company shareholders, and improvements in the methods for defining new- and high-tech enterprises.

专栏8:创新平台建设 新华社发
Box 8: Major Science and Technology Innovation Platforms
二是大众创业万众创新广泛开展。28个国家双创示范基地建设全面推进。双创政策信息服务平台开通,双创白皮书发布。国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金、科技成果转化引导基金子基金和国家中小企业发展基金实体基金设立运行,投贷联动试点启动,创业担保贷款创新发展。第二届全国双创活动周及“创响中国”巡回接力活动成功举办。大型央企建设双创实体平台128个,印发实施进一步完善中央财政科研项目资金管理等政策的若干意见,科研院所和高校鼓励创新创业机制逐步完善,各类孵化器、专业化众创空间日趋成熟。全年平均每天新登记企业1.51万户。

2) Entrepreneurship and innovation initiatives were carried out across the board.

Work on establishing 28 national entrepreneurship and innovation demonstration centers moved forward on all fronts. Information service platforms for entrepreneurship and innovation policies began operating, and a whitepaper on entrepreneurship and innovation was published. The national seed fund for investing in emerging industries, the sub-funds of the seed fund for encouraging the application of scientific and technological advances, and the National SME Development Fund all came into operation. Trials got underway to allow banks to make combined debt-equity investments in startups and small businesses, and creative improvements were made to the system of guaranteed loans for business startups. The second National Week for Entrepreneurship and Innovation and the Innovating China Tour were a tremendous success. 128 platforms for entrepreneurship and innovation were developed by large-scale central government enterprises, guidelines on further improving the policies for managing the funding of central government-funded research programs were published and implemented, and mechanisms for encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation were gradually improved in research institutes and universities. All types of incubators and professional maker spaces saw continuous development. On average, 15,100 new enterprises were registered each day in 2016.

三是新技术新产业新业态新模式蓬勃发展。工业机器人、集成电路、卫星应用、通用航空、生物等新产业快速发展。战略性新兴产业实现平稳增长,2016年,27个重点监测战略性新兴产业行业规模以上企业实现收入和利润分别增长11.32%和13.96%。“互联网+”行动和国家大数据战略深入推进,人工智能、虚拟现实、基因工程等新技术加速兴起,平台经济、分享经济、协同经济等新模式广泛渗透,线上线下融合、跨境电商、社交电商、智慧家庭、智能交通等新业态不断涌现。全年网上零售交易额近5.2万亿元,同比增长26.2%;其中,实物商品网上零售额占社会消费品零售总额的12.6%。

3) New technologies and industries as well as new forms and models of business flourished.

There was rapid development in industrial robotics, integrated circuits, satellite applications, general aviation, bio-industry, and other new industries, while growth in strategic emerging industries was stable. In 2016, enterprises with annual turnover of 20 million yuan or more in 27 key strategic emerging industries increased their revenues by 11.32% and profits by 13.96%. We pressed ahead with implementing the Internet Plus initiative and the national big data strategy. Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, genetic engineering, and other new technologies experienced more rapid development. The platform, sharing, and collaborative economies, along with other new business models, achieved far-reaching penetration. New forms of business mushroomed, including combined online-offline businesses, cross-border and social networking e-commerce, smart home technology, and intelligent transportation. Online retail sales for 2016 reached nearly 5.2 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 26.2%, with online retail sales of goods accounting for 12.6% of total retail sales of consumer goods.

四是传统产业转型升级步伐加快。加快落实《中国制造2025》,组织实施增强制造业核心竞争力三年行动计划和制造业升级改造重大工程包,8个产业化实施方案顺利推进。铁路关键装备研发试验取得重大突破,226个智能制造综合标准化试验验证和新模式应用项目有序开展,国家机器人检测与评定中心建设进展顺利。先进制造产业投资基金设立。

4) Transformation and upgrading of traditional industries accelerated.

We moved faster to put the Made in China 2025 strategy into place, and organized implementation of the three-year action plan to enhance core competitiveness of our manufacturing industries and the project packages for transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing sector. The eight plans for industrial application were implemented smoothly. Major breakthroughs were made in research and development on key railway equipment. A total of 226 programs to run comprehensive, standardized tests on smart manufacturing technologies and apply new manufacturing models proceeded as planned. We made progress in building the National Robot Test and Evaluation Center. An investment fund for advanced manufacturing was set up.

五是服务业创新发展稳步推进。落实加快发展生产性服务业、生活性服务业的两个指导意见,服务业领域放宽市场准入实施规划出台,新一轮服务业综合改革试点启动。安排服务业发展引导资金,支持163个公共服务平台建设。第三产业增速继续超过第二产业,增加值占国内生产总值的比重提高到51.6%。

5) Solid steps were made in innovating and developing the service industry.

We implemented the guidelines on accelerating the development of producer and consumer services and published the implementation plan for relaxing controls over market access in the service sector. A new round of comprehensive pilot reforms in the service sector began. We allocated funds for guiding the development of the service industry and supported the establishment of 163 public-service platforms. The tertiary industry has continued to outgrow the secondary industry, and the value-added of the tertiary industry accounted for a higher proportion of GDP, reaching 51.6%.

六是基础设施网络进一步完善。加快推进现代综合交通运输体系建设,交通基础设施网络总里程突破500万公里。交通提质增效、扶贫脱贫、重大基础设施建设“一二三百”工程出台实施,推进多式联运发展,促进通用航空业发展,推动交通物流融合发展。能源生产和消费革命战略出台,能源供应能力不断增强,非化石能源消费比重预计上升到13.3%,煤炭消费比重下降到62.0%。全国地级市基本建成光网城市,新一代信息基础设施更加完善,建成全球最大的4G网络。

6) Further improvements were made to infrastructure networks.

As a result of accelerated development of the modern comprehensive transportation system, the length of transportation infrastructure networks open to traffic exceeded five million kilometers. We unveiled and implemented the 100 Demonstration Projects to Improve Transportation Quality and Efficiency, 200 Transportation Projects to Help Reduce Poverty, and 300 Major Transportation Infrastructure Projects. We worked to stimulate development of multimodal transportation and the general aviation industry and integrated the development of transportation and logistics infrastructure.

The strategy on revolutionizing energy generation and consumption was launched, and energy supply capacity continued to grow stronger. The proportion of non-fossil energy consumption rose to an estimated 13.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of coal consumption dropped to 62.0%. Fiber-optic networks were established in almost all prefecture-level cities, next-generation information infrastructure saw yet further enhancements, and China's 4G network, which is the world's largest, was completed.

专栏9:重大基础设施建设 新华社发

Box 9: Major Infrastructure Construction
(五)着力提升农业可持续发展能力,农业现代化建设取得新进展。农业农村发展继续保持稳中有进的良好态势,粮食总产量达到6.16亿吨,为经济社会发展大局提供了有力支撑。

5. We worked to increase the capacity for sustainable agricultural development and achieved new progress in agricultural modernization.

The trend of ensuring progress while maintaining stability continued in agricultural and rural development and grain output reached 616 million metric tons, thus ensuring agriculture served as a strong pillar of economic and social development.

一是农业生产能力继续提高。落实《全国新增1000亿斤粮食生产能力规划》,高标准农田建设加快推进,全面完成永久基本农田划定,国家粮食安全和重要农产品供给保障能力进一步增强。新建粮食仓容195亿斤。农业生产稳中调优,籽粒玉米种植面积调减2039万亩,粮改饲、粮改豆试点范围扩大,畜产品和水产品综合生产能力继续增强。农业绿色发展稳健起步,农业环境突出问题治理专项启动实施,农业可持续发展试验示范区启动创建,“一控两减三基本”行动取得阶段性成效,对农业面源污染、东北黑土地、农牧交错带已垦草原综合治理试点的支持力度加大。

1) Agricultural production capacity continued to increase.

We implemented the plan to increase China's grain production capacity by 50 million metric tons, moved faster to develop high-quality farmland, and completed in full the work of designating permanent basic cropland throughout the country. As a result, our ability to guarantee national food security and the supply of major agricultural products has been further increased. New grain silos with a total capacity of 9.75 million metric tons were built. In working to optimize agricultural production while maintaining its stability, we reduced the area of land for corn kernel cultivation by 1.36 million hectares, expanded trials to cultivate feed crop or soybean crop instead of grain crop, and continued to raise overall production capacity for livestock and aquatic products.

We made steady progress in promoting green agricultural development, launching a campaign to control and prevent serious agricultural environmental pollution, establishing pilot demonstration zones for sustainable agricultural development, and securing important achievements in implementing the action plan against pollution in rural areas*. We intensified support for trials to comprehensively manage agricultural pollution from non-point sources, chernozem soils in the northeast, and former grassland now under cultivation in transition areas between cropland and grassland.

* The action plan aims to: 1) control water consumption for agricultural purposes; 2) cut the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers; 3) use recycling as a means of handling the pollution caused by the waste of livestock and poultry farming, plastic mulch film, and straw burning.

二是农业农村基础设施不断完善。中小河流治理、小型病险水库除险加固、灌排骨干工程建设与配套改造和小型农田水利建设等进展顺利,新增高效节水灌溉面积2000万亩以上,农村饮水安全巩固提升工程启动实施。新一轮农村电网改造升级工程,包括小城镇中心村农网改造升级和平原地区农村机井通电等重点工程全面实施。农村交通基础设施服务水平不断提升,新改建农村公路29万公里。“宽带乡村”工程继续实施,电信普遍服务试点全面部署,农村信息基础设施进一步改善。

2) Agricultural and rural infrastructure continued to improve.

We successfully implemented projects to harness small and medium-sized rivers, reinforce small, dilapidated reservoirs, build key irrigation and drainage facilities as well as upgrade supporting infrastructure, and develop small-scale irrigation and water conservancy facilities. The area of cropland under efficient water-saving irrigation exceeded 1.33 million hectares. We also launched the project to consolidate and advance efforts to ensure safe drinking water in rural areas.

A new round of power-grid improvement projects began throughout the country, including key projects for upgrading power grids in rural areas, small towns, and hub villages, and for providing power supply to all electric pump sets on rural flatlands. Transportation infrastructure and services in rural areas were continuously improved, and 290,000 kilometers of rural road were newly built or upgraded. We continued to implement broadband development projects in villages, carried out nationwide trials of providing universal telecommunications services in rural areas, and further improved rural information infrastructure.

三是农村一二三产业融合发展进展顺利。农村产业融合发展“百县千乡万村”试点示范工程启动,137个试点示范县在优化发展布局、推进产城融合发展、构建现代农业产业体系、创新投融资机制等方面进行了积极探索。农村产业融合发展孵化园区加快建设,多元融合主体发展较快,打造了一批农业产业化龙头企业,农村新产业新业态蓬勃发展。

3) Integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas advanced smoothly.

The "100 counties, 1,000 townships, 10,000 villages" pilot demonstration project to promote rural industrial integration was implemented, with all 137 demonstration counties undertaking active explorations on how to improve development plans, promote integration between industrial development and urbanization initiatives, establish an industry system for modern agriculture, and innovate investment and financing mechanisms in the agricultural sector. We accelerated efforts to establish incubation parks for integrated development of industries in rural areas, develop diverse entities that integrate primary, secondary, and tertiary industry operations, and cultivate a group of leading enterprises in agricultural industrialization. New industries and new forms of business in rural areas experienced robust growth.

四是农村改革稳步推进。农村土地所有权、承包权、经营权分置办法出台实施,土地承包经营权确权登记颁证面积超过8亿亩。房地一体的农村宅基地、集体建设用地确权登记加快推进。农村集体产权制度改革意见出台,农村集体资产股份权能改革试点和土地承包权有偿退出试点积极开展。农村承包土地经营权和农民住房财产权抵押贷款试点稳妥有序推进。土地经营权流转和抵押规模不断扩大。各类新型经营主体发展壮大,数量超过270万家。

4) Solid results were achieved in rural reform.

We issued and implemented the Measures for Separating Land Ownership Rights, Contract Rights, and Management Rights in Rural Areas, and determined, registered, and certified contracted rural land-use rights for more than 53.3 million hectares of land. The determination and registration of integrated housing ownership and land-use rights for rural housing land and rights for collectively owned land designated for construction was accelerated. We drew up the Guidelines on Reforming the Rural Collective Property Rights System, and moved ahead with pilot reforms to grant shareholder rights for rural collective assets as well as trials to permit the sale of land contract rights. We carried out trials in a prudent and orderly fashion to allow rural residents to mortgage their contracted land-use rights and residential property rights. The cases of transferring or mortgaging rural land use rights have continually increased. New types of agribusinesses thrived and their number rose to more than 2.7 million.

(六)深入实施三大战略和新型城镇化,城乡区域发展格局正在重塑优化。发挥三大战略、“四大板块”的叠加效应,促进城乡区域协调协同发展,提升新型城镇化质量和水平,新增长点增长极增长带加快发展壮大。

6. We further implemented the Three Initiatives and New Urbanization, which has helped reshape and enhance the pattern of urban and rural development.

We fostered synergy between the Three Initiatives (the Belt and Road Initiative, coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and development of the Yangtze Economic Belt) and the coordinated development of the western, northeastern, central, and eastern regions. We promoted coordinated and integrated regional development and urban-rural development, and increased the quality and standards of New Urbanization. New growth areas, poles, and belts experienced stronger, faster development.

一是三大战略扎实有序推进。各省(区、市)主动融入丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路建设,新疆、福建“一带一路”核心区建设成效初显。京津冀协同发展有序推进,北京城市副中心加快规划建设,一批疏解示范项目稳步实施,交通、生态、产业三个重点领域协同推进,一批重大改革举措落地。长江经济带发展规划纲要印发实施,坚持共抓大保护、不搞大开发,绿色生态廊道建设加快推进,覆盖上中下游地区的省际协商合作机制全面建立。

1) The Three Initiatives advanced in a solid and orderly manner.

All provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government actively took part in the Belt and Road Initiative, and initial results were delivered in developing Xinjiang as the core of the Silk Road Economic Belt and Fujian as the core of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

In systematically promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we sped up planning and development of Beijing's sub-administrative center, implemented a number of demonstration projects to relieve Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as China's capital, facilitated coordination in three major areas-transportation, ecological conservation, and industrial development-and enacted a range of major reform measures. We published and implemented the Outline on Developing the Yangtze Economic Belt, continued coordinated efforts to champion environmental protection and eschew large-scale development, accelerated work on building a green, ecological corridor, and fully established a mechanism for inter-provincial consultation and cooperation covering the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the River.

图表5:“一带一路”建设 新华社发

Figure 5. The Belt and Road Initiative

图表6:京津冀协同发展 新华社发

Figure 6. Coordinated Development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

图表7:长江经济带发展 新华社发

Figure 7. The Yangtze Economic Belt
二是区域发展总体战略和差别化区域政策深入实施。加快新一轮西部大开发,一批重大标志性工程开工建设,中西部地区经济继续保持较快增长。出台实施新一轮东北振兴战略和若干重大政策举措,国企改革、投资营商环境改善等重点领域改革取得新进展。明确中部地区“一中心、四区”重要战略定位,长江中游城市群重要增长极作用强化。东部地区转型升级、开放创新、陆海统筹优势持续发挥,区域发展新动能新亮点不断涌现。出台促进区域协调发展的指导意见,差别化区域政策体系持续完善。国家综合配套改革试验区、国家级新区及各类开发区、承接产业转移示范区、产城融合示范区、临空经济示范区等重要功能平台建设有序推进。加快革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区和集中连片特困地区脱贫攻坚。完善支持政策措施,推进新疆、西藏、四省藏区经济社会发展和长治久安。

2) Implementation of the master strategy for regional development and differentiated development policies for different regions deepened.

We increased efforts to accelerate large-scale development in the western region, with construction beginning on a number of signature projects. A relatively high-pace of economic development was maintained in the central and western regions. A new round of strategies and a number of major policies and measures for revitalizing the northeast were implemented, and reform in key areas, such as SOEs and the investment and business environment, made fresh progress. We underscored the strategic position of the central region, designating it as the country's key advanced manufacturing center, and as the priority area for New Urbanization, the core area for modern agricultural development, the demonstration area for promoting ecological progress, and the key area for comprehensive opening up. The city clusters along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River played a greater role as major growth poles. The eastern region continued to leverage its advantages in transforming and upgrading industries, in pursuing opening up and innovation, and in coordinating land and marine development to generate a constant stream of new drivers for growth and produce new highlights in development.

We introduced guidelines on promoting coordinated development between regions, and continued to improve the system of differentiated regional policies. We ensured the orderly development of major function platforms-such platforms include national experimental zones for integrated, complete reform, state-level new areas and all types of development zones, demonstration zones for industrial relocation, demonstration zones for integrating industrial and urban development, and demonstration airport economic zones. We intensified efforts to combat poverty in old revolutionary base areas, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and contiguous poor areas. We improved polices and measures for promoting economic and social development and continuing stability in Xinjiang, Tibet, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces.

专栏10:“四大板块” 新华社发

Box 10: Development of the Four Regions
三是新型城镇化建设稳步推进。农业转移人口市民化步伐加快,户籍制度改革意见、居住证制度以及人地挂钩、支持农业转移人口市民化财政政策等关键性配套政策出台,全年进城落户人口达1600万人,常住人口城镇化率达到57.35%,户籍人口城镇化率达到41.2%。城市群规划建设有序推进,支持武汉、郑州建设国家中心城市。在全国开展新生中小城市和特色小(城)镇培育,国家新型城镇化综合试点范围扩大到2个省246个城市(镇)。61个中小城市综合改革试点取得积极成效。

3) We steadily advanced the development of New Urbanization.

We granted urban residency to more people with rural household registration living in urban areas, and issued a number of key policies in support of this work, such as the guidelines on reform of the household registration system, the policy for implementing the residence certificate system,and the policy for linking increases in the amount of land designated for urban development in a locality to the number of former rural residents granted urban residency there. A total of 16 million people with rural household registration were granted urban residency in 2016. In total, permanent urban residents now account for 57.35% of the population, while the percentage of registered urban residents has reached 41.2%. We planned and developed city clusters in an orderly way, and supported Wuhan and Zhengzhou in developing as national principal cities. We facilitated the development of emerging small- and medium-sized cities as well as small towns with unique features across the country, and extended comprehensive trials of New Urbanization programs to two provinces and 246 cities and towns. Trials for comprehensive reform of small- and medium-sized cities yielded positive results in 61 cities.

专栏11:新型城镇化建设 新华社发

Box 11: New Urbanization
(七)加强生态环境保护和能源资源节约,绿色发展初见成效。单位国内生产总值能耗和二氧化碳排放量分别下降5%和6.6%,超额完成全年目标,化学需氧量、氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量预计分别下降2.6%、2.9%、5.6%、4.0%,地级及以上城市空气质量优良天数比例同比提高2.1个百分点,74个重点城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)年均浓度下降9.1%,地表水达到或好于Ⅲ类水体比例同比提高1.8个百分点、劣Ⅴ类水体比例同比下降1.1个百分点,万元国内生产总值用水量下降5.6%。

7. We intensified environmental protection and energy and resource conservation, securing early achievements in promoting green development.

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP fell by 5% and 6.6% respectively, both surpassing annual targets. According to estimated figures, chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 2.6%, ammonia nitrogen emissions by 2.9%, sulfur dioxide emissions by 5.6%, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 4.0%. A year-on-year increase of 2.1 percentage points occurred in the proportion of days with good or excellent air quality for cities at or above prefectural level, while the annual average PM2.5 concentrations in 74 key cities dropped by 9.1%. The proportion of surface water with a national quality rating of Grade III or above rose by 1.8 percentage points year on year, and the proportion of surface water with a rating lower than Grade V, meanwhile, fell by 1.1 percentage points. Water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP fell by 5.6%.

图表8:生态文明建设和绿色发展 新华社发

Figure 8. Ecological Progress and Green Development
一是生态文明建设取得新进展。生态文明建设目标评价考核办法印发实施。决定在福建省、江西省和贵州省开展国家生态文明试验区建设,生态文明先行示范区建设持续深化。健全国家自然资源资产管理体制试点方案、省以下环保机构监测监察执法垂直管理制度改革试点指导意见、控制污染物排放许可制实施方案、划定并严守生态保护红线若干意见、培育环境治理和生态保护市场主体意见等一批改革方案印发实施。在吉林等7省(市)开展生态环境损害赔偿制度改革试点。全面推行河长制意见出台。生态保护补偿机制不断健全。新一轮退耕还林还草、重点防护林、石漠化综合治理、京津风沙源治理、水土流失综合治理等工程加快推进,湿地保护体系初步形成。开展中央环境保护督察。

1) Work to promote ecological progress moved ahead.

We promulgated and implemented the measures on evaluating performance in advancing ecological progress. We decided to build pilot zones for ecological advancement in Fujian, Jiangxi, and Guizhou provinces, and stepped up the development of pilot demonstration zones for promoting ecological progress. We issued and implemented a number of reform plans on ecological progress, including: the pilot plan on improving the national system for natural-resource asset management; the guidelines for trial reforms to establish a system to bring county- and prefecture-level environmental monitoring, inspection, and law enforcement bodies directly under the jurisdiction of provincial-level environmental bodies; the plan for implementing the emissions permit system to tighten emissions control; and the guidelines on establishing and holding firm to the red lines for ecological conservation and on fostering market entities for environmental governance and ecological conservation. Pilot reforms of the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage were carried out in seven provinces and municipalities directly under the central government including Jilin.

The guidelines on bringing the river chief system into full operation were issued, and mechanisms for compensating ecological conservation efforts were improved. We moved faster to implement a new round of projects to return marginal farmland to forest and grassland, build key forest shelterbelts, comprehensively address the expansion of stony deserts, control the sources of dust storms affecting Beijing and Tianjin, and bring soil erosion under control. A basic framework for wetland conservation was put in place. The central government carried out environmental inspections.

二是主体功能区战略深入实施。国家重点生态功能区范围拓展到676个县及87个重点国有林区林业局,产业准入负面清单制度出台实施。省级海洋主体功能区规划编制实施工作在11个沿海省份展开。三江源、东北虎豹、大熊猫、神农架、武夷山、钱江源等国家公园体制试点方案印发实施。资源环境承载能力监测预警机制初步建立,先行在京津冀地区试点。市县“多规合一”试点深入推进,省级空间规划试点方案印发实施。全国国土规划纲要、全国土地利用总体规划纲要调整方案印发实施。

2) The development strategy for functional zones was further implemented.

Key ecosystem service zones have been established in 676 counties and 87 forestry bureaus in key state forestry areas. A negative list for industry access to key ecosystem service zones was issued and put into force. Work got under way in 11 coastal provinces to draw up and implement plans for marine functional zones. The plan for establishing a national park system on a trial basis was implemented, with trials going ahead in national parks at the Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang riversources, in the habitats of Siberian tigers, Far Eastern leopards, and giant pandas, in the Shennongjia area, in the Wuyi Mountains, and at the source of the Qiantang River. The mechanisms for monitoring and providing early warning on the carrying capacity of resources and the environment were basically established, with initial trials being implemented in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The pilot project for municipal or county-level governments to integrate various types of urban plans into a single urban plan moved forward, and the plan to carry out spatial-planning trials at the provincial level was implemented. The National Land Plan (2016-2030) and the Adjustments to the General Plan for National Land Use (2006-2020) were introduced.

三是节能减排持续推进。“十二五”省级人民政府节能目标责任评价考核结果公布,“十三五”能耗、水耗总量和强度“双控”制度建立实施,在浙江、福建、河南、四川4省开展用能权有偿使用和交易制度试点。循环经济发展加快,生产者责任延伸制度方案印发实施,产业园区循环化改造继续推进。印发《“十三五”节能环保产业发展规划》,构建绿色金融体系指导意见出台实施,发行各类绿色债券2296.6亿元,节能环保产业不断做大做强。

3) Sustained progress was made in energy conservation and emissions reduction.

The results of performance evaluations of provincial-level governments in fulfilling responsibilities for energy conservation targets during the 12th Five-Year Plan period were released to the public. The system to control both the total amount and intensity of energy and water consumption during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was established. Pilot projects to set up systems for the paid use and trade of energy consumption rights were carried out in Zhejiang, Fujian, Henan, and Sichuan provinces. We stepped up development of the circular economy, issuing the plan to create a system for extended producer responsibility and making strides in promoting circular operations within industrial parks. The plan for developing energy conservation and environmental protection industries during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was issued. The guidelines on establishing a green finance system were introduced and applied, bonds worth 229.66 billion yuan for launching eco-friendly initiatives were issued, and the energy conservation and environmental protection industries achieved robust growth in terms of both scale and strength.

四是环境综合治理力度加大。《京津冀地区大气污染防治强化措施(2016-2017年)》发布实施,重点地区煤炭消费量进一步压减,加快燃煤电厂超低排放改造,全国累计淘汰黄标车和老旧车404.6万辆。制定实施2016-2017年长江经济带生态环境保护行动计划,完成11省(市)126个地级及以上城市全部319个集中式饮用水水源保护区划定,出台《全国重要饮用水水源地名录》,排查整治城市黑臭水体和非正规垃圾堆放点。深入开展农村生活垃圾治理专项行动,推进农村人居环境综合整治。土壤污染防治行动计划发布实施,出台污染地块土壤环境管理办法,启动14个土壤污染治理与修复试点项目和6个土壤污染综合防治先行区建设,加强重金属污染防控重点区域综合治理。全国矿山地质环境恢复和综合治理进一步加强。环境风险管控水平进一步提高,突发环境事件得到妥善处置。

4) More was done to comprehensively address environmental problems.

Stronger measures on the prevention and control of air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (2016-2017) were promulgated and implemented, and coal consumption in key areas was further cut. Coal-fired power plants were urged to swiftly upgrade their facilities and achieve ultra-low emissions. A total of 4.046 million old and high-emission vehicles were removed from roads nationwide. The action plan on environmental protection of the Yangtze Economic Belt (2016-2017) was implemented. Planning was completed on the establishment of protection zones for 319 centralized drinking water sources in 126 cities at or above prefectural level in 11 provinces and provincial-level municipalities. The national list of major drinking watersources was formulated.

We identified and cleaned up both black, malodorous water bodies and undesignated refuse dumping points in urban areas. A project to manage household refuse in rural areas got fully under way, and comprehensive measures were taken to improve the rural living environments. We issued the action plan to prevent and control soil pollution and the measures for soil environmental governance on polluted land plots, launched 14 related pilot projects aimed at prevention, control, and restoration, and also established six trial zones for comprehensively preventing and curbing soil pollution. Greater efforts were taken to comprehensively improve land in key areas contaminated by heavy metals. We continued to improve and restore the geological environment in mining areas throughout the country. We made headway in managing and controlling environmental risks and in responding effectively to environmental emergencies.

五是应对气候变化工作不断强化。“十三五”控制温室气体排放工作方案印发实施。低碳省市、城(镇)、园区、社区等试点示范有序开展。碳排放权交易市场建设积极推进。城市适应气候变化行动方案发布实施。气候变化南南合作加快推进,“十百千”项目启动实施。首批签署和较早批准《巴黎协定》,创新性推动实现中美元首出席批准文书交存仪式,为推动《巴黎协定》尽早生效作出历史性贡献。建设性参加联合国气候变化马拉喀什会议并推动会议取得成功。

5) Our efforts to respond to climate change grew stronger.

A work plan to control greenhouse gas emissions during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was introduced. Trials and demonstrations to encourage low-carbon growth in provinces, municipalities, cities, towns, industrial parks, and communities proceeded in an orderly manner. Encouraging progress was made in establishing a national market for the trading of carbon emission rights. The Action Plan on Developing Climate Resilient Cities was promulgated.

We quickened the pace of South-South cooperation on climate change and launched cooperation projects in developing countries to set up 10 low-carbon demonstration zones, launch 100 mitigation and adaption programs, and provide 1,000 places on climate-change training programs. China was one of the first countries to sign the Paris Climate Agreement and also ratified it at a relatively early stage. The presidents of China and the United States deposited with United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon their respective country's instrument to join the Paris Agreement-the proposal to hold the ceremony, which was the first of its kind, was put forward by China, making a significant contribution toward the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement. China attended the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, where it played a constructive role and contributed to the overall success of the conference.

(八)加快发展社会事业和改善民生,人民生活水平持续提升。全力推进精准扶贫精准脱贫,加强社会政策托底,努力提高基本公共服务均等化水平。

8. We moved faster to develop social programs and improve people's wellbeing, ensuring that living standards continued to rise.

We directed major efforts toward implementing targeted measures for poverty alleviation and elimination, made social policies more effective in meeting basic living needs, and ensured more equitable access to basic public services.

专栏12:精准扶贫精准脱贫工程 新华社发

Box 12: Targeted Poverty Reduction Projects
一是脱贫攻坚战全面打响。《“十三五”脱贫攻坚规划》发布实施,全国财政专项扶贫资金投入超过1000亿元。印发实施“十三五”易地扶贫搬迁规划,22个省(区、市)全面启动易地扶贫搬迁项目,全年249万人易地扶贫搬迁建设任务如期完成。金融扶贫、特色产业扶贫、教育扶贫、交通扶贫、水利扶贫、旅游扶贫、光伏扶贫、电商扶贫、以工代赈等深入推进。东西部扶贫协作不断深化。推动集中连片特困地区“十三五”省级实施规划落地,对川陕等革命老区、赣南等原中央苏区振兴发展与脱贫攻坚支持力度持续加大。支持四川凉山、云南怒江、甘肃临夏等面临特殊困难的少数民族自治州加快建设小康社会进程。

1) The fight against poverty began in full swing.

The plan for poverty elimination during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was released and implemented, and over 100 billion yuan was allocated to government poverty-alleviation funds nationwide. The plan for relocating people from inhospitable areas during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was published and implemented. In line with this, related projects were launched in 22 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government, and last year's objective to provide housing for the 2.49 million people relocated from inhospitable areas was completed on time. We made great progress in reducing poverty by providing financial support and by promoting the development of locally viable industries, education, transportation, water conservancy projects, tourism, photovoltaic power facilities, e-commerce, and work-relief programs in poor areas. Coordination on poverty reduction between the western and eastern regions continued to grow. We worked to ensure the implementation of the provincial plan for promoting development and fighting poverty in contiguous poor areas during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Greater support was given to promote revitalization and development and to reduce poverty in old revolutionary base areas such as the Sichuan-Shaanxi region and the former Central Soviet Area in southern Jiangxi. We supported extremely poor autonomous prefectures with concentrations of ethnic minorities, such as Liangshan in Sichuan, Nujiang in Yunnan, and Linxia in Gansu, to ensure they can work more quickly in building a moderately prosperous society.

二是社会保障能力不断加强。全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长6.3%,农村居民收入增幅连续7年高于城镇居民。退休人员基本养老金水平提高6.5%左右。基本医疗保险参保人数超过13亿,城乡居民基本医保补助标准由每人每年380元提高到420元。在全国范围内建立了困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。

2) The capacity to provide social security was constantly enhanced.

Per capita disposable personal income increased by 6.3% in real terms, and the growth rate of rural income was greater than that of urban income for the seventh year in a row. Basic pension benefits for retirees were raised by approximately 6.5%. The number of people under the basic medical insurance system exceeded 1.3 billion, and the government subsidy for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents increased from 380 yuan to 420 yuan per capita per annum. The system for granting living allowances to people with disabilities who face financial difficulties and providing a care subsidy to people with serious disabilities was put in place across the country.

三是公共服务供给持续改善。学前教育毛入园率、九年义务教育巩固率、高中阶段毛入学率分别达到77.4%、93.4%和87.5%。高等教育毛入学率达到42.7%,超过中高收入国家平均水平。现代职业教育体系进一步完善和发展。城乡基本医疗服务体系进一步健全,基本公共卫生服务项目年人均财政补助达到45元,均等化水平明显提高。“健康中国2030”规划纲要发布实施,每千人口执业(助理)医师数增长到2.31人,每万人全科医生数增长到1.53人。全年出生人口达到1786万人,全面两孩政策平稳落地,生育服务保障进一步加强。公共文化服务体系建设继续加强,各省(区、市)均已出台本地区的基本公共文化服务实施标准。实施中华优秀传统文化传承发展工程的意见等基础性制度出台。实施全民健身计划,体育健儿在里约奥运会、残奥会上再创佳绩。冰雪、水上、航空、山地户外等运动加快发展。

3) The supply of better public services was maintained.

The gross enrollment ratio for preschool education came to 77.4%; the retention rate of nine-year compulsory education grew to 93.4%; and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 87.5%. The gross enrollment ratio for higher education stood at 42.7%, surpassing the average level of upper-middle-income countries. The modern vocational education system was further improved.

The system for providing basic medical care services for rural and urban residents also improved and the government subsidy for basic public health services increased to 45 yuan per capita per annum, helping to make access to services far more equitable. The Healthy China 2030 Program was issued and implemented. The number of occupational physicians and physician assistants increased to 2.31 per 1,000 people and the number of general practitioners grew to 1.53 per 10,000 people. We ensured smooth implementation of the policy to allow couples to have two children and further improved childbirth services; and China celebrated the births of 17.86 million babies over the course of the year.

The system of public cultural services was further strengthened and all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government worked out standards for providing these services. The basic elements underlying the project to develop and pass on fine Chinese cultural traditions, such as the implementation guidelines, were formulated. The Fitness for All initiative was launched, and Chinese athletes once again achieved great success at the Olympic and Paralympic Games which were held in Rio de Janeiro. Winter, water, and aviation sports, mountaineering and outdoor pursuits, as well as other sports all developed at a faster pace.

专栏13:公共服务供给 新华社发

Box 13: Supply of Public Services
四是保障性安居工程建设扎实推进。加大中央预算内投资和中央财政专项资金支持力度,继续发挥企业债券直接融资作用,支持棚户区住房改造等保障性安居工程。2016年,完成棚户区住房改造600多万套,农村危房改造380多万户。

4) The construction of government-subsidized housing progressed steadily.

We supported government-subsidized housing projects, such as the rebuilding of run-down areas, by increasing central government budgetary investment and special funding in this area and continuing to secure direct financing through corporate bond issuance. In 2016, we rebuilt over six million housing units in run-down urban areas and renovated over 3.8 million dilapidated rural houses.

从计划指标运行情况看,经济增长、就业、价格总水平、国际收支平衡等主要指标保持在合理区间,科技创新、生态环保、民生保障等反映发展质量和效益的指标进一步改善,总的完成情况是好的。 In assessing the overall situation related to the targets set out in the 2016 Plan, we can see that major targets for national and social development, such as the economic growth rate, employment levels, the consumer price index, and the balance of payments, were kept within proper range. While our performance in relation to targets reflecting the quality and benefits of development, such as those concerning scientific and technological innovation, ecological conservation and environmental protection, and people's wellbeing, was further improved. Overall, the 2016 Plan was successfully implemented.
19个约束性指标全部完成。43个预期性指标中,38个指标运行情况符合或高于预期,第一产业、全社会固定资产投资、货物进出口额、广义货币供应量(M2)增长率、城镇居民人均可支配收入5个指标运行值与预期值存在差距。需要说明的是,预期性指标的计划目标不是指令性的,也不是预测值,而是国家期望的发展目标,体现预期和政策导向,实际运行情况可能高于预期目标,也可能低于预期目标。部分指标运行值与预期目标存在差距,主要有以下原因:一是针对农产品阶段性供大于求、库存高企、价格低迷的形势,主动推进种养结构调整,部分主要农产品产量有所回落,因此第一产业增加值增幅略低于预期目标。二是受市场需求偏弱、投资回报下降、企业信心不强等因素综合影响,投资特别是民间投资、制造业投资下行压力较大,加上固定资产投资价格下跌持续时间和幅度超出预期,导致全社会固定资产投资增幅低于预期目标。三是受全球经济复苏乏力、国际贸易需求疲软、针对我国的保护主义加剧等影响,货物贸易进出口虽回稳向好,但仍难以实现预期目标。四是为供给侧结构性改革营造适宜的货币金融环境,在对实体经济提供足够支持的同时,货币供应切实体现了不搞“大水漫灌”和去杠杆、防风险、抑制资产价格泡沫的要求,因此广义货币供应量(M2)增速低于预期目标。五是从收入指标完成情况看,全国居民人均可支配收入增长与经济增长基本同步,受经济下行压力影响,部分行业从业人员工资性收入增幅放缓,导致城镇居民人均可支配收入增幅低于预期目标。

All 19 obligatory targets were achieved as planned. Of the 43 anticipatory targets, 38 were either on target or exceeded, while performance in relation to the remaining five-targets for the primary industry, fixed-asset investment, the total import and export volume of goods, M2 money supply growth rate, and per capita disposable income of urban residents-fell short of expectations. It should be clarified that the anticipatory targets are neither mandatory nor predicted; as development objectives that the government hopes to meet, they are a reflection of the anticipated direction of national development and policy orientation. The actual performance for these targets may be higher or lower than the planned figures.

The major reasons for the discrepancies between the projected figures for these anticipatory targets and actual performance are as follows:

First, to deal with a period of supply in agricultural products outstripping demand as well as a build-up in the inventory of agricultural products and a resulting trend of depressed prices, we took the initiative to adjust what and how much we grow and breed, which caused the output of some major agricultural products to drop off. As a result, the increase in the value-added of the primary industry was slightly lower than the planned figure.

Second, a combination of insufficient market demand, a decrease in returns on investment, and low confidence among enterprises gave rise to considerable downward pressure on investment, particularly investment from private sources and in the manufacturing sector. These factors, as well as a prolonged and larger-than-expected drop in fixed-asset investment prices resulted in the increase in fixed-asset investment being lower than the anticipatory target.

Third, a range of factors, such as a stuttering global economic recovery, weak demand in the international trade market, and increasing protectionism against China, meant that, although the total import and export volume of goods began to rise steadily, it still fell short of projected figure.

Fourth, we needed to ensure that a favorable monetary and financial environment for supply-side structural reform was created. So while ensuring there was sufficient support in place for the real economy, we stayed away from strong stimulus policies affecting money supply that would have an economy-wide impact, and instead worked to deleverage, guard against risks, and prevent an asset price bubble. As a result, the growth rate of M2 money supply fell short of projected figure.

Fifth, in assessing the situation in relation to targets regarding income, we see that increases in per capita disposable personal income stayed basically in step with economic growth. The influence of downward pressure on the economy, however, caused the growth of salary-based incomes for employees in certain industries to slacken. As a result, increase in urban per capita disposable income fell short of the planned figure.

总之,在国内外形势错综复杂的情况下,我国经济增速继续走在世界前列,发展质量和效益提高,经济结构继续优化,人民生活水平持续改善,生态环境有所好转,成绩来之不易。这是党中央、国务院正确领导的结果,是各地区各部门共同努力的结果,是全国各族人民团结奋斗的结果。 To sum up, despite complex situations both at home and abroad, we still made considerable achievements-our country's economic growth rate was still faster than most countries in the world; the quality and efficacy of development grew; the economic structure was further improved; increases in living standards were sustained; and ecosystems and the environment also saw some improvement. These achievements have not come easily. They are a result of the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the collective hard work of all regions and departments,and the concerted efforts of the people of all our ethnic groups.
同时,我们也清醒地认识到,世界经济仍然在深度调整,复苏动力不足,不稳定和不确定性将进一步凸显,国际投资和贸易低迷,保护主义、内顾倾向抬头。国内经济稳定运行的基础还不牢固,仍面临不少突出矛盾和问题。一是实体经济结构性供需失衡。供给体系产能大多数只能满足中低端、低质量、低价格的需求,随着消费结构加快升级,出口需求和投资需求相对下降,供给结构不适应需求新变化。二是有效需求增长乏力。有效投资特别是民间投资、制造业投资增速较低。经济下行对就业、收入、消费的滞后影响开始显现。国际需求持续低迷,国内综合要素成本不断上涨,产业和订单向外转移加快,我国外贸发展面临的形势更加复杂严峻。三是部分区域、行业、企业困难较大。一些资源型和传统产业比重大的地区,下行压力和发展困难较大。部分行业分化调整的影响,可能沿产业链传导。受市场环境偏紧和经营成本较高双重挤压,企业盈利能力较弱、亏损面较大。四是部分领域风险仍在积累。一些地区财政收支矛盾突出,防控金融风险力度需进一步加大,房地产市场仍面临结构性高房价、高库存双重挑战。五是大气雾霾等环境问题仍然突出。多频次、广区域、长时间、重浓度的雾霾天气,给人民生产生活带来较大影响。与此同时,安全生产、食品药品质量和民生等领域也出现一些新问题。我们要高度重视,准确分析研判国内外形势,增强忧患意识,强化底线思维,保持战略定力,更加有效应对。

While recognizing our achievements, we are also keenly aware that the world economy is still undergoing profound adjustment and that impetus for economic recovery is lacking, instabilities and uncertainties are increasing, international investment and trade are inadequate, and protectionism and other inward-looking trends are on the rise. China's economy is still without a solid enough foundation for ensuring steady development and still faces a number of acute problems.

First, the real economy is beset by a structural imbalance between supply and demand. The majority of production capacity within the supply system can only meet demand for products that are at the middle-to-low end or are of a low price or poor quality. Upgrading within the consumption structure is occurring at an increasingly faster pace; by contrast, export and investment demand are decreasing. These new changes in demand are something that the supply structure has yet to properly adapt to.

Second, growth in effective demand is weak. Effective investment is growing slowly, particularly investment from private sources and in manufacturing. The delayed impact of downward economic pressure on employment, income, and consumption is now starting to show. The increasingly complex and challenging situation relating to China's foreign trade development is marked by persistently weak international demand, rising costs for multiple factors of production at home, and an increase in the pace at which industries and orders for goods are shifting to other countries.

Third, some regions, industries, and enterprises are confronted with serious difficulties. Resource-dependent areas and strongholds of traditional industry are experiencing severe downward pressure and great difficulties in development. There is a possibility that the effects of divergent growth trends and adjustments, which some industries are experiencing, will end up being transmitted throughout the industry chain. Having been pressed by insufficient market demand and comparatively high operational costs, the ability of enterprises to make a profit has decreased and a greater number of enterprises are suffering losses.

Fourth, risks are mounting in some sectors. Notable imbalances exist between government revenue and expenditures in some localities; greater efforts need to be made to guard against and control financial risks; and the real estate market is still facing serious structural challenges on two fronts, with exorbitant housing prices in some cities and overabundant inventory in others.

Fifth, environmental problems such as smog are still grave. Frequent and prolonged periods of heavy smog extending across large areas have greatly affected the work and lives of our people. At the same time, new problems in relation to workplace safety, food and medicine quality, and the people's wellbeing are also emerging.

We must give top priority to these issues, carry out studies and analysis to correctly assess the domestic and international situations, increase our awareness of potential dangers and of the lines that are not to be crossed, and maintain strategic resolve so as to ensure we produce a more effective response.



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